UCVM Interviews

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UCVM Interviews
2013-03-22 16:08:32
areas emphasis etc

Points for the interview
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  1. UCVM's Mission
    • Our mission is to meet the veterinary, animal and public health needs of Alberta through:
    • -Excellence in delivery of comprehensive undergraduate veterinary medical education, emphasizing the production animal health, ecosystem and public health, equine health, and investigative medicine;
    • -Excellence in clinical, diagnostic and professional teaching and service, in collaboration with our partners in a Distributed Veterinary Learning Community;
    • -Excellence in the creation and distribution of new knowledge through research, graduate veterinary education, and continuing education in animal health and disease, and its relation to human health.
  2. Meet needs
    • Rural Ab,
    • the food animal industries
    • Environmental and wildlife health (ecosystem health)
    • Comparative health and biomedical research
    • Public health
  3. 4 areas of emphasis
    • Production animal health
    • Ecosystem and public health
    • Equine health
    • Investigative medicine
  4. Production animal health
    Population and individual animal health of all food and other production animal species; educating veterinarians to meet the needs of the livestock industry and rural Alberta
  5. Ecosystem and public health
    The interface of domestic animal, wildlife, human and environmental health; educating veterinarians to meet the  needs of society through public and private practice in areas related to public health, food safety, environmental and agricultural interfaces, wildlife/conservation/zoo medicine and health
  6. Equine health
    Population and individual equine health and medicine; educating veterinarians to meet the needs of the horse industry and horse owners
  7. Investigative medicine
    Comparative medicine, biomedical research and laboratory animal medicine; educating veterinarians to participate in the biomedical research enterprise and contribute to the advancement of animal and human health
  8. UCVM's vision
    • Bringing innovation and community together to advance animal and human health.
    • UCVM is dedicated to innovation in both its educational and research programs.  UCVM's undergraduate DVM and advanced clinical training programs are dependent on a partnership with the veterinary community and seeks to have research and graduate education programs that are relevant to it stakeholder community
  9. Why antibiotics are not effective if used too late
    • Too many bacteria
    • Too much tissue damage
    • Formation of walled-off abscesses that can't be penetrated by antibiotics
    • Poor absorption of drug
  10. Why antibiotics only kill bacteria, not our cells.
    • Bacteria are prokaryotes, we are eukaryotes, which mean differences that can be targeted.
    • They have cell walls, we do not
    • Different ribosomes (70S instead of 80S units, though our mitochondria also have 70S)
    • May need to synthesize folic acid for production of DNA, RNA - eukaryotes do not synthesize folic acid
    • Can produce antibiotics that will have a selective effect on bacteria and not humans
  11. Bacteria resistant to these drugs
    • Penicillin
    • Semi-synthetic penicillins
    • Methicillin resistant (MRSA) S. aureus
    • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)
    • Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA)
    • ESBL (Extened Suectrum Beta-Lactamase)
    • M tuberculosis: MDR-TB, XDR-TB
    • Plasmodium falciparum - quinine and chloroquinine
  12. Specific antibiotics
    Inhibit gram - or gram + organisms or certain bacterial species
  13. Broad-spectrum antibiotics
    Inhibit both Gram - and Gram + organisms: wide variety
  14. Major Classes of Antimicrobials
    • 1. Agents that cause inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    • e.g. penicillins, cephalosporins, vancomycin
    • 2. Agents that cause inhibition of protein synthesis
    • e.g. aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines
    • 3. Agents that cause injury to the plasma membrane
    • e.g. polymixin B (topical)
    • 4. Agents that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
    • e.g. quinolones, rifamycins, antivirals like acyclovir
    • 5. Agents that inhibit the synthesis of essential metabolites
    • e.g. sulfa and trimethoprim
  15. Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics in four ways
    • 1. Destruction of drug
    • 2. Prevent penetration
    • 3. Target site alteration
    • 4. Ejection of drug from bacterium
  16. 3 mechanisms for Foreign DNA uptake
    • Conjugation
    • Transduction
    • Transformation
  17. R-factors are on
  18. Why do bugs become resistant
    • Overuse
    • Incomplete treatment regimens
    • Inappropriate treatment

    All bugs don't need drugs!
  19. What are superbugs
    Bacteria that can't be controlled by antibiotics
  20. Relative resistance of microorganisms to chemical agents (least to most)
    • Prions
    • Endospores
    • Mycobacteria
    • Cysts of vegetative protozoa
    • Vegetative protozoa
    • Gram negative bacteria
    • Fungi
    • Naked viruses
    • Gram positive bacteria
    • Enveloped viruses
  21. 3 R's to animal research
    • Replace animals is science
    • Reducing the numbers of animal used
    • Refining care and procedures to minimize pain and distress
  22. Veterinary Oath
    • To use scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health and welfare, the prevention and relief of suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health and the advancement of medical knowledge.
    • I will practice my profession conscientiously, with dignity, and in keeping with the principles of veterinary medical ethics.  I accept as a lifelong obligation the continual improvement of my professional knowledge and competence