Biology Chapter 8

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Biology Chapter 8
2013-03-20 18:21:37
Key Terms

DNA structure and function
Show Answers:

  1. clone
    Genetically identical copy of an organism
  2. Autosome
    Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome
  3. Centromere
    Constricted region in a eukaryotic chromosome where sister chromatids are attached
  4. Chromosome
    A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of a cell's genetic information
  5. Chromosome number
    The sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type
  6. Diploid
    Having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species
  7. Histone
    Type of protein that structurally organizes eukaryotic chromosomes
  8. Karyotype
    Image of an individual's complement of chromosomes arranged by size, length, shape and centromere location
  9. Nucleosome
    A length of DNA wound twice around a spool of histone proteins
  10. Sex chromosome
    Member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males and females
  11. Sister chromatid
    One of two attached DNA molecules of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome
  12. Bacteriophage
    Virus that infects bacteria
  13. DNA sequence
    Order of nucleotide bases in a strand of DNA
  14. DNA ligase
    Enzyme that seals gaps in double-stranded DNA
  15. DNA polymerase
    DNA replication enzyme. Uses a DNA template to assemble a complementary strand of DNA
  16. DNA replication
    process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides
  17. primer
    short, single strand of DNA that base-pairs with a targeted DNA sequence
  18. Semiconservative replication
    Describes the process of DNA replication, which produces two copies of a DNA molecule: one strand of each copy is new, and the other is a strand of the original DNA
  19. Mutation
    Permanent change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  20. Reproductive Cloning
    Technology that produces genetically identical individuals
  21. Somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT
    method of reproductive cloning in which genetic material is transferred from an adult somatic cell into an unfertilized, enucleated egg
  22. Therapeutic Cloning
    the use of SCNT to produce human embryos for research purposes