Biology Chapter 9

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Biology Chapter 9
2013-03-20 18:33:06
Key Terms

From DNA to protein
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  1. gene
    DNA sequence that encodes an RNA or protein product
  2. gene expression
    process by which the information in a gene becomes converted to an RNA or protein product
  3. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    a type of RNA that carries a protein-building message
  4. ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    a type of RNA that becomes part of ribosomes
  5. transcription
    process by which an RNA is assembled from nucleotides using the base sequence of a gene as a template
  6. transfer RNA (tRNA)
    a type of RNA that delivers amino acids to a ribosome during translation
  7. translation
    process by which a polypeptide chain is assembled from amino acids in the order specified by an mRNA
  8. alternative splicing
    RNA processing event in which some exons are removed or joined in alternate combinations
  9. exon
    Nucleotide sequence that is not spliced out of RNA during processing
  10. intron
    nucleotide sequence that intervenes between exons and is excised during RNA processing
  11. promoter
    in DNA, a sequence to which RNA polymerase binds
  12. RNA polymerase
    enzyme that carries out transcription
  13. Anticodon
    set of three nucleotides in a tRNA; base-pairs with mRNA codon
  14. codon
    in mRNA, a nucleotide base triplet that codes for an amino acid or stop signal during translation
  15. genetic code
    complete set of sixty-four mRNA codons
  16. base-pair substitution
    mutation in which a base pair changes
  17. deletion
    mutation in which one or more base pairs are lost
  18. frameshift
    mutation that causes the reading frame of mRNA codons to shift
  19. insertion
    Mutation in which one or more base pairs become inserted into DNA
  20. transposable element
    segment of chromosomal DNA that can spontaneously move to a new location