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in E.coli, which terms accurately reflect the nature of replication of the chromosome?
bidirectional and fixed point of initiation
a single gene may produce two or more different RNAs by the process of
DNA polymerase II adds nucleotides to
the 3' end of the RNA primer
DNA polymerase I is thought to add nucleotides
in the place of the primer RNA after it is removed
structures located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes are called
which cluster of terms accurately reflects the nature of DNA replication in eukaryotes?
A. fixed point of initiation, dibirectional,conservative
B. fixed point of initiation, unidirectional,conservative
C. multiple points of initiation, bidirectional,semiconservative
multiple points of initiation, bidirectional, semiconservative
the discontinuous aspect of replication of DNA in vivo is caused by
the 5' to 3' polarity restriction
Eukaryotes are dependent on ____ to complete synthesis of their chromosome ends.
an intron is a section of
RNA that is removed during RNA processing
during DNA replication in eukaryotes, polymerase switching occurs
A. Pol a is replaced by Pol δ for
B. Pol δ is replaced by Pol a for elongation
C. Pol ais replaced by Pol β for elongation
D. Pol βis replaced by Pol α for elongation
what is the initiator triplet in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes? what amino acid is recruited by this triplet
select three posttranscriptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes
A. 5'-capping, 3'-poly(A)
tail addition, splicing
5'-poly(A) tail addition, splicing
C. removal of exons,
insertion of introns, capping
tail addition, insertion of introns, capping
formation, base modification, capping
three posttransciptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes occur in which cellular organelle?
when considering the initiation of transcription, one often finds consensus sequences located in the region of the DNA where RNA polymerase(s) bind. which are common consensus sequences in Eukaryotes?
when scientists were attempting to determine the structure of the genetic code, Crick and co-workers foudn that when three base additions or three base deletions occured in a single gene, the wild-type phenotype was sometimes restored. these data supported the hypothesis that
the code is triplet
the term peptidyltransferase relates to
peptide bond formation during protein synthesis
holiday structure usually occur during
meiosis in eukaryotes
it has been recently determined that the gene for Duchenne, muscular dystrophy (DMD) is over 2000 kb in length; however, the mRNA produced by this gene is only about 14 kb long. What is a likely cause of this discrepancy?
the introns have been spliced out during mRNA processing
which of the following clusters of terms applies when addressing enhancers or silencers as elements associated with eukaryotic genetic regulation?
cis-acting, variable orientation,
trans-acting, fixed position, fixed
C. cis-acting, fixed position, fixed orientation
D. cis-acting, variable position, fixed orientation
trans- and cis-acting, variable
A. cis-acting, variable orientation, variable position
which of the following chemical modifications is associated with increased gene activity?
acetylation of histones
methylation of DNA
deacetylation of histones
A. acetylation of histones
short RNA molecules can "silence" genes by
bind to mRNAs and speed their degradation by facilitating the binding of enzymes that cleave the mRNA
DNA methylation may be significant mode of genetic regulation in eukaryotes. Methylation refers to?
addition of methyl groups to the cytosine of CG doublets
transcription factors are proteins with at least two functional domains
one activation domain, one repression domain
what eukaryotic RNA polymerase is required for mRNA genes?
RNA polymerase II
one speaks of upstream active sequencing as being DNase hypersensitive. we would interpret this to mean that
UAS is constitutively active, free of nucleosomes
which one of these parts is not needed to specify the correct splicing of an intron?
A. 5’ consensus
D. Branch point
during elongation in translation, into which site in the ribosome does the aminoacyl tRNA enter?