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  1. Accommodate
    In regard to achieving the american dream, to adjust noneconomic needs so that they are secondary to and supportive of economic ones
  2. Conduct norms
    Norms that regulate to our daily lives. rules that reflect the attitudes of the groups to which each of us belongs.
  3. Cultural deviance theories
    Crime results from cultural values that permit  or even demand, behavior in violation of the law.
  4. Cultural transmission
    Views delinquency as a socially learned behavior transmitted from one generation to the next in disorganized urban areas.
  5. Culture conflict theory
    A theory positioning that two groups may clash when their conduct norms differ, resulting in criminal activity
  6. Deviance
    A broad concept encompassing both illegal behavior and behavior that departs from the social norm.
  7. Differential association theory
    Based on the principal that an individual becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions learned that are favorable to violation of law over definitions learned that are unfavorable to violation of law.
  8. General strain theory
    Criminal behavior can result from strain caused by failure to achieve positively valued goals, stress caused by the removal of possibly valued stimuli from the individual, or strain caused by the presentation of negative stimuli.
  9. Social disorganization theory
    The breakdown or effective social bonds, primary group associations, and social controls in neighborhoods and communities is held to result in development of high crime areas
  10. Strain theory
    A gap between culturally approved goals and legitimate means of achieving them causes frustration that leads to criminal behavior.
  11. Differential opportunity theory
    Attempts to join the concept of anomie and differential association by analyzing both legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures available to individuals  it posits that illegitimate opportunities are unequally distributed.
  12. Reaction formation
    An individual response to anxiety in which the person reacts to a stimulus with abnormal intensity or inappropriate conduct.
  13. Subculture
    A subdivision within the dominant culture that has its own norms, beliefs, and values.
  14. Subcultures of violence
    Subcultures with values that demand the overt use of violence in certain social situations.
  15. Attachment
    The bond between a parent and child or between individuals and their family, friends, and school
  16. Belief
    the extent to which an individual subscribes to society's values
  17. Commitment
    A person's support if and participation in a program, cause, or social activity, which ties the individual to the moral or ethical codes of society.
  18. Conformity
    Correspondence of an individual;s behavior to society's patterns, norms, or standards.
  19. Containment theory
    Every person possess a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency
  20. Direct control
    AN external that depends on rules restrictions and punishments
  21. Drift
    a state of limbo in which youths move in and out of delinquency and in which their lifestyles can embrace both convectional and deviant values.
  22. Indirect control
    a behavioral influence that arises from an individuals ID which noncriminals and his or her desire to conform to societal norms.
  23. Internalized control
    self-regulation of behavior and conformity to societal norms as a result of guilt feelings arising in the conscience
  24. Involvement
    an individuals participation in conventional activities.
  25. Macrosociological studies
    the study of overall social arrangments, their structure and their long term effects
  26. Microsociological studies
    the study of everyday patterns of behavior and personal behavior
  27. Social control theory
    An explanation of criminal behavirot that focuses on control mechanisms, techniques, and strategies for regulating human behavior, leading to conformity or obedience to society's rules, and which posits that deviance results when social controls are weakened or break down, so that individuals are not motivated to conform to them
  28. Synnomie
    A social state, the opposite of anomie, marked by social cohesion achieved through the sharing of values
  29. Conflict theory
    A theory that holds that the people who posses the power work to keep the powerless at a disadvantage.
  30. Consensus model
    members of society agree on what is right and wrong and that law is the codification of agreed-upon social values
  31. Due process
    A fundamental mandate that a person should not be deprived of life, liberty, or property without reasonable and lawful procedures
  32. Equal protection
    Guarantees equal protection of the law to everyone, without regard to race, origin, economic class, gender, or religion.
  33. Labeling theory
    A theory the explains deviance in terms of the process by which a person acquires a negative identity, such as addict or ex-con, and is forced to suffer the consequences of outcast status
  34. Penologists
    social scientist who study and apply the theory and methods of punishment for crime
  35. Radical criminology
    studies the relationship between economic disparity and crime, avers that crime is the result of a struggle between owners capital and workers for the distribution of power and resources, and posits that crime will disappear only when capitalism is abolished
  36. Social interactionists
    scholars who view the human self as formed through a process of social interactions
  37. Displacement
    In the event that a crime has been prevented, the commission of a quantitatively similar crime at a different time or place
  38. Environmental criminology
    An approach to crime that examines the location of a specific crime and the context in which it occurred in order to understand and explain crime patterns
  39. Rational choice
    A theory stating that crime is the result of a decision making process in which the offender weighs the potential penalties and rewards of committing a crime.
  40. Routine activity
    A theory stating that an increase or decrease in crime rates can be explained by changes in the daily habits of potential victims; based on the exceptions that crimes will occur where there is a suitable target unprotected by guardians
  41. Target hardening
    A crime prevention technique that seeks to make it more difficult to commit a given offense, by better protecting the threatened object or person.
  42. Theories of victimization
    theories that explain the role the victims play in the crimes that happen to them
Card Set:
2013-04-02 00:10:24

Exam 2
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