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children between the ages of 1 and 3 years old
children between the ages of 3 and 5 years who are not yet attending kindergarten
the stage of development immediately preceding adolescence: 9 to 11 years of age for girls and 10 to 12 years of age for boys
5 to 10 years
measurement of length while the child is lying down. is used to measure toddlers less than 24 months of age and those between 24 and 36 months who are unable to stand unassisted
the ability to make effective decisions and to take responsible action based upon one's own needs and desires
persons natural hieght
a normal increase in body mass index that occurs after BMI declines and reaches its lowest point at 4 to 6 years of age
concern for your own interests and welfare
foods sold to children in food service areas during mealtimes that compete with the federal meal programs
permanent white or brownish staining of the enamel of teeth caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride before teeth have erupted
- a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the abdominal wall and stomach
-form of enteral nutrition support for delivering nutrition by tube placement directly into the stomach
Women, Infants, and Children (a government program to ensure proper nutrition for poor mothers and their children)
- -specifies that no one with a disability can be excluded from participating in federally funded programs or activities, including elementary, secondary or postsecondary schooling
- -refers to a "physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities.
-early childhood development programs serving low-income children from ages birth to five and their families.
school-readiness curriculum that includes literacy, language, science, mathematics, and social-emotional development. They also receive medical and dental services, have healthy meals and snacks, and enjoy playing safely indoors and outdoors.
IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services
food stamp program
offers nutrition assistance to millions of eligible, low income individuals and families and provides economic benefits to communities
sudden onset of a reaction with mild to severe symptoms including a decrease in ability to breathe which may be severe enough to cause a coma
children between the ages of 5 and 10 years also referred to as school age
According to the American
Academy of Pediatrics, what is the best age to introduce solids to an
6 months of age
How long should you wait
between introductions of new foods?
2 to 3 days
What are some of the first
foods that should be introduced?
rice cereal, fruits and vegetables like pears, applesauce, carrots
What are the causes of early childhood caries?
frequent consumption of liquids containing fermentable carbohydrates (e.g., juice, milk, formula, soda) increases the risk of dental caries due to prolonged contact between sugars in the liquid and cariogenic bacteria on the teeth
Why is honey not appropriate for infants before the age of
Honey can cause botulism in small infants. Honey is a known source of bacterial spores that produce Clostridium botulinum bacteria. When ingested by infants, these bacteria make a toxin that can cause infant botulism, a rare and serious form of food poisoning.
CDC growth charts are
available for birth to_____ months. And ___-20 years.
36 months and 2 years
Which CDC chart is used for measuring
birth to 36 months
which CDC chart is used for stature measurements?
2 to 20 years
What is the leading cause of death among young children ?
The rule of thumb regarding portion sizes for toddlers is
______ tablespoon per year of age.
Describe how appetite is affected during times of slower growth in children?
their appetites diminish and they eat less food during meal times
Family mealtime provides an opportunity for parents to
________ healthy eating behaviors for the young child.
What are some foods that should not be served to children less than two years of age because of their potential as choking hazards?
grapes, hard candy, popcorn, hot dogs, nuts
Do children have the innate ability to adjust caloric intake to meet caloric needs? Explain.
yes they do. they know when they are hungry and how hungry they are that is why is important not to push children to clean their plates because that can mess up their ability to do so
The optimal “feeding relationship” is one where parents
provide children with nutritious food and let children ___________ how much to
What are good methods
to use to help children learn to accept a new food?
- -Having them offered over and over
- -Having them served with familiar foods
- -Seeing friends, older kids, and grown‐ups eating these foods
- -Tasting them prepared in different ways
- -Choosing foods to try themselves
- -Starting with small amounts
Toddlers are at highest
risk for _________________ anemia.
Describe the process of
Tooth decay is the process that results in a cavity (dental caries). It occurs when bacteria in your mouth make acids that eat away at a tooth
Do children need a source
of fluoride in the diet?
yes to protect their permanent teeth as they form
Describe why young children
are particularly at risk for lead poisoning and how high blood levels affect
- -their smaller, growing bodies make them more susceptible to absorbing and retaining lead.
- - high blood levels= not enough insulin
How do iron deficiency
anemia and calcium affect blood lead levels in children/toddlers?
-throughout the body, anemia results in less oxygen reaching the cells and tissues, affecting their function.Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), often caused by insufficient iron intake, is the major cause of anemia in childhood.
-If a child does not have enough calcium in his diet, problems such as fractures or broken bones are more likely to occur.
In what environments
would a child be of increased risk of exposure to lead based paint?
in old homes and windows built before 1978
Children less than 10
years of age account for a disproportionate percent of food poisoning cases
Adequate ____________ intake in childhood affects peak bone
For children at risk
for food allergies resulting in anaphylaxis, parents should use an injectible
form of __________________.
___________________of the food that causes allergy is required.
and complete avoidance
At what BMI percentile would a child be classified as
Being at risk for overweight?
For each _____ hour(s) of TV obesity rate increased 2%.
Why is it particularly important
for school-age children to drink enough fluids compared to adults.
to prevent dehydration during periods of exercise and during participation in sports, because children are at risk for dehydration and heat-related stress
Why are soft drinks in excess not recommended for school-aged children?
Soft drink consumption displaces nutrient- dense beverages such as milk & fortified juices.
It is a Healthy People 2010 National Objective is to increase the
proportion of children and adolescents who view television _____or fewer hours
What are the physical activity recommendations for children?
children engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day.
Are girls or boys, in general, less active?
Does physical activity tend to increase or decrease with age?
Has physical education in schools been increasing or decreasing?
How much of the DRI for the children being served per age/grade must school lunch provide?
Describe how treatment of overweight in children should be approached.
a staged care process based on BMI, comorbid conditions, age, and motivation.* The four stages include (1) Prevention Plus, (2) structured weight management, (3) comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention, and (4) tertiary care inter- vention.
What are some potential consequences of weight-loss programs in childhood?
a slowing of linear growth and the beginnings of eating disorders
The major nutrition-related consequence of cystic fibrosis is malabsorption of nutrients due to the lack of ___________ enzymes.
Nutrition interventions include increasing ______and protein by two to four times the recommendations.
Children less than 10 years of age account for a disproportionate percent of food poisoning cases involving ______________.
glucose metabolism and insulin
Type ___ results in no insulin production.
Type______is more common in children.
Treatment is regulation and __________of meals along with insulin_____________ or medications.
Seizures are uncontrolled _________ disturbances in the brain.
Seizures decrease or increase when using a ketogenic diet.
A ketogenic diet limits ________ and increases calories from ________.
Phenylketonureia (PKU) is an inborn error of protein metabolism where the ___________ that uses phenylalanine is not working.
Excess phenylalanine causes mental _________.
The treatment is a lifelong dietary management where protein from food is __________with protein in which the amino acid phenylalanine has been removed.