nutrition 2

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nutrition 2
2013-03-20 22:15:11

nutrition 2
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  1. toddlers
    children between the ages of 1 and 3 years old
  2. pre-school age
    children between the ages of 3 and 5 years who are not yet attending kindergarten
  3. preadolescences
    the stage of development immediately preceding adolescence: 9 to 11 years of age for girls and 10 to 12 years of age for boys
  4. school aged
    5 to 10 years
  5. recumbent length
    measurement of length while the child is lying down. is used to measure toddlers less than 24 months of age and those between 24 and 36 months who are unable to stand unassisted
  6. self efficacy
    the ability to make effective decisions and to take responsible action based upon one's own needs and desires
  7. stature
    persons natural hieght
  8. adiposity rebound
    a normal increase in body mass index that occurs after BMI declines and reaches its lowest point at 4 to 6 years of age
  9. egocentrism
    concern for your own interests and welfare
  10. competitive foods
    foods sold to children in food service areas during mealtimes that compete with the federal meal programs
  11. fluorosis
    permanent white or brownish staining of the enamel of teeth caused by excessive ingestion of fluoride before teeth have erupted
  12. Gastrostomy
    - a surgical procedure that creates an opening through the abdominal wall and stomach

    -form of enteral nutrition support for delivering nutrition by tube placement directly into the stomach
  13. WIC
    Women, Infants, and Children (a government program to ensure proper nutrition for poor mothers and their children)
  14. 504 Accommodation
    • -specifies that no one with a disability can be excluded from participating in federally funded programs or activities, including elementary, secondary or postsecondary schooling
    • -refers to a "physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities.
  15. head start
    -early childhood development programs serving low-income children from ages birth to five and their families.

    school-readiness curriculum that includes literacy, language, science, mathematics, and social-emotional development. They also receive medical and dental services, have healthy meals and snacks, and enjoy playing safely indoors and outdoors.
  16. IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services
  17. food stamp program
    offers nutrition assistance to millions of eligible, low income individuals and families and provides economic benefits to communities
  18. anaphylaxis
    sudden onset of a reaction with mild to severe symptoms including a decrease in ability to breathe which may be severe enough to cause a coma
  19. middle childhood
    children between the ages of 5 and 10 years also referred to as school age
  20. According to the American
    Academy of Pediatrics, what is the best age to introduce solids to an
    6 months of age
  21. How long should you wait
    between introductions of new foods?
    2 to 3 days
  22. What are some of the first
    foods that should be introduced?
    rice cereal, fruits and vegetables like pears, applesauce, carrots
  23. What are the causes of early childhood caries?
    frequent consumption of liquids containing fermentable carbohydrates (e.g., juice, milk, formula, soda) increases the risk of dental caries due to prolonged contact between sugars in the liquid and cariogenic bacteria on the teeth
  24. Why is honey not appropriate for infants before the age of
    1year old?
    Honey can cause botulism in small infants. Honey is a known source of bacterial spores that produce Clostridium botulinum bacteria. When ingested by infants, these bacteria make a toxin that can cause infant botulism, a rare and serious form of food poisoning.
  25. CDC growth charts are
    available for birth to_____ months. And ___-20 years.
    36 months and 2 years
  26. Which CDC chart is used for measuring
    recumbent length?
    birth to 36 months
  27. which CDC chart is used for stature measurements?
    2 to 20 years
  28. What is the  leading cause of death among young children ?
  29. The rule of thumb regarding portion sizes for toddlers is
    ______ tablespoon per year of age.
  30. Describe how appetite is affected during times of slower growth in children?
    their appetites diminish and they eat less food during meal times
  31. Family mealtime provides an opportunity for parents to
    ________ healthy eating behaviors for the young child.
  32. What are some foods that should not be served to children less than two years of age because of their potential as choking hazards?
    grapes, hard candy, popcorn, hot dogs, nuts
  33. Do children have the innate ability to adjust caloric intake to meet caloric needs? Explain.
    yes they do. they know when they are hungry and how hungry they are that is why is important not to push children to clean their plates because that can mess up their ability to do so
  34. The optimal “feeding relationship” is one where parents
    provide children with nutritious food and let children ___________ how much to
  35. What are good methods
    to use to help children learn to accept a new food?
    • -Having them offered over and over
    • -Having them served with familiar foods
    • -Seeing friends, older kids, and grown‐ups eating these foods
    • -Tasting them prepared in different ways
    • -Choosing foods to try themselves
    • -Starting with small amounts
  36. Toddlers are at highest
    risk for _________________ anemia.
    iron deficiency
  37. Describe the process of
    tooth decay
    Tooth decay is the process that results in a cavity (dental caries). It occurs when bacteria in your mouth make acids that eat away at a tooth
  38. Do children need a source
    of fluoride in the diet?
    yes to protect their permanent teeth as they form
  39. Describe why young children
    are particularly at risk for lead poisoning and how high blood levels affect
    the body
    • -their smaller, growing bodies make them more susceptible to absorbing and retaining lead.
    • - high blood levels= not enough insulin
  40. How do iron deficiency
    anemia and calcium affect blood lead levels in children/toddlers?
    -throughout the body, anemia results in less oxygen reaching the cells and tissues, affecting their function.Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), often caused by insufficient iron intake, is the major cause of anemia in childhood.

    -If a child does not have enough calcium in his diet, problems such as fractures or broken bones are more likely to occur.
  41. In what environments
    would a child be of increased risk of exposure to lead based paint?
    in old homes and windows built before 1978
  42. Children less than 10
    years of age account for a disproportionate percent of food poisoning cases
    involving ______________.
  43. Adequate ____________  intake in childhood affects peak bone
  44. For children at risk
    for food allergies resulting in anaphylaxis, parents should use an injectible
    form of __________________.
  45. Strict
    ___________________of the food that causes allergy is required.
    and complete avoidance
  46. At what BMI percentile would a child be classified as
    95th percentile
  47. Being at risk for overweight?
    85th percentile
  48. For each _____ hour(s) of TV obesity rate increased 2%.
  49. Why is it particularly important
    for school-age children to drink enough fluids compared to adults.
    to prevent dehydration during periods of exercise and during participation in sports, because children are at risk for dehydration and heat-related stress
  50. Why are soft drinks in excess not recommended for school-aged children?
    Soft drink consumption displaces nutrient- dense beverages such as milk & fortified juices.
  51. It is a Healthy People 2010 National Objective is to increase the
    proportion of children and adolescents who view television _____or fewer hours
    per day
  52. What are the physical activity recommendations for children?
    children engage in at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day.
  53. Are girls or boys, in general, less active?
  54. Does physical activity tend to increase or decrease with age?
  55. Has physical education in schools been increasing or decreasing?
  56. How much of the DRI for the children being served per age/grade must school lunch provide?
  57. School breakfast?
  58. Describe how treatment of overweight in children should be approached.
    a staged care process based on BMI, comorbid conditions, age, and motivation.* The four stages include (1) Prevention Plus, (2) structured weight management, (3) comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention, and (4) tertiary care inter- vention.
  59. What are some potential consequences of weight-loss programs in childhood?
    a slowing of linear growth and the beginnings of eating disorders
  60. The major nutrition-related consequence of cystic fibrosis is malabsorption of nutrients due to the lack of ___________ enzymes.
  61. Nutrition interventions include increasing ______and protein by two to four times the recommendations.
  62. Children less than 10 years of age account for a disproportionate percent of food poisoning cases involving ______________.
    glucose metabolism and insulin
  63. Type ___ results in no insulin production.
  64. Type______is more common in children.
  65. Treatment is regulation and __________of meals along with insulin_____________ or medications.
    composition, injections
  66. Seizures are uncontrolled _________ disturbances in the brain.
  67. Seizures decrease or increase when using a ketogenic diet.
  68. A ketogenic diet limits ________ and increases calories from ________.
    carbohydrates, fat
  69. Phenylketonureia (PKU) is an inborn error of protein metabolism where the ___________ that uses phenylalanine is not working.
  70. Excess phenylalanine causes mental _________.
  71. The treatment is a lifelong dietary management where protein from food is __________with protein in which the amino acid phenylalanine has been removed.