Western civ exam 2

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Vonte06
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208675
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Western civ exam 2
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2013-03-22 02:30:24
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western civilization
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exam 2
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  1. who were the Etruscans?
    Great traders that developed a rich cultural life that became the foundation of civilization throughout italy.
  2. What were the punic wars?
    two sets of wars between Rome and Carthage

    -the first punic war Rome was victorius after 23 years of fighting.

    -the second punic war Carthage was led by Hannibal and a roman victory meant that the western mediterranean would be Romes.
  3. what was the first triumvirate?
    an alliance among caeser, crassus, and pompey in which they agreed to advance one anothers interests.
  4. what is the second triumvirate?
    a pact between Augustus and two of Caesar's lieutenants, Marc Antony and Lepidus; together they hunted down and defeated Caesr's murders
  5. Who was Julius Caesar?
    He recieved superb education and was a great orator, a military genious, and a successful leader
  6. Who was Octavian?
    made himself dictator, survived and became first emporer of Rome.
  7. what are patricians?
    they are nobles, and only patricians could be senates, magistrates, generals, interpret law, and ratify laws.
  8. who are the plebians?
    they were the commoners
  9. what is a barbarian?
    anyone that did not speak greek and were unruly,savage, and primitive.
  10. who is constantine?
    came up through the army and ruled from the east and had authority over the entire empire, established a new capital for the empire and named it new rome and it was soon called constantinople, and also made christianity tolerable.
  11. who is Theodosius?
    Emporer in 380 he made Nicene Christianity the official religion of the empire.
  12. who is diocletian?
    One of the Roman emporers
  13. what is Martyrdom?
    willing to die for ones religious beliefs.
  14. what is Asceticism?
    extreme material sacrafice, including fasting and the renunciation of sex.
  15. What is the rule of St Benedict?
    Benedicts guide for Monastic life, came to influence all forms of organized religious life in the Western Christian Church.
  16. what is the Pax Romana?
    the Roman period of peace,security, order, flourishing culture, and expanding economy during the first and second centuries
  17. what was the sack of Rome?
    The Visigothic king Alaric I invaded italy and sacked rome in 410 in response to the Romans massacring thousand of its allies.
  18. what is latafundia?
    Romans buying up land to create huge estates.
  19. what is Monasticism?
    withdrawing from cities and sociey to seek God.
  20. what is Wergeld?
    any crime that involved a personal injury, such as assult, rape, and murder, was given a particular monterary value.
  21. What is comitatus?
    A War band of young men in a barbarian tribe who were closely associated with the king, swore loyalty to him, and fought with him in battle
  22. what was constantinople?
    the capital for the byzantanium empire
  23. what was the Orthodox Church?
    Eastern Christian Church in the Byzantine Empire
  24. what is arianism?
    a theological belief that originated with arius, a priest of alexandria, denying that christ was divine and coeternal with God the Father.
  25. what is heresy?
    the denial of the basic doctrine of faith
  26. why was the rape of Lucretia such a compelling story for the Romans?
    the story of the Rape of Lucretia was a compelling story becasuse it truly highlighted the importance of honor to the Roman people. in this story Sexitus went into Lucretious room and he put a knife to her and said he would kill her if she made a sound. this did not seem to be enough to convince her so then he brought to her the idea that he would rape her, kill her and put a dead slave next to her. this would bring great dishonor to her family. he raped her and left and she sent word to her husband and father. after she told them what happened she stabbed herself in the heart becasue she couldn live with the grief.
  27. what is the signifigance of marius and sulla? how is tiberious grachaus and important part of this narritive and what did the political carrers of these three men mark the beggining of?
    Tiberius Gaius recognized the plight of Romes peasant farmers and he was dedicated to finding a solution to the problems of the verterans and the poor. he introduced a land bill in the concillium plebis without consulting the senate. manu powerful Romans became suspicious of his growing power and he was killed by a large group of senators, led by the pontifus maximus.Marius and Sulla both were members of the consul. Marius anually held the consulship putting unprecedented power into a Roman commanders hands. sulla marched on rome and restored order there, and proclaimed himself dictator and launched many political and judicial reforms increasing the number of magistrates.
  28. why did the early christian church hold councils? explain why these councils are still significant even today.
    there were many theological disputes that dealt with the nature of christ and it divided the christian community. councils were then held to hold together the faith and establish different rules for them to keep christianity alive and stable. with the Nicene Creed it helped keep christianity and the idea of there being three Gods in one alive.
  29. what was the reason for the split between the east and the west?
    Diocletian realized thatĀ empire had become too great for one man to handle so he divided it into two halfs. i dont feel that rome actually fell. if it would of continued to be ran by just one man, it would of eventually became to much for him and collapsed. it was better to divide the power in the way that they did
  30. what allowed christianity to spread and survive? what institutions did christians eventually establish and why?
    paul of Tarus was the catalyst for the spread of christianity. when the teachings of christ spread to rome, it became more universal as jesus had wanted it to be. since the roads of rome spread out vastly through the world that helped christianity move about vastly as well. Justin Martyr eventually established a christian school in rome to teach the similarities between christians, jews, and pagans.
  31. describe the origins of the Roman empire and then follow its evolution through the reign of constantine.

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