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2013-03-21 09:01:25
HON 122

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  1. 1800s: Europe= __. There were new industries, new sources of energy, and new goods __ with scientific and technological achievements and belief that human condition would improve. A __ emerged, which meant __
    • material prosperity
    • Second Industrial Revolution
    • mass society
    • improvements for the lower classes, who benefited from the extension of voting rights, a better standard of living, and education.
  2. It also brought __. New work patterns created the “__” and __ enabled ordinary workers to make excursions to amusement parks. __ also resulted in new roles for government of Europe’s nation-states. 19th: communities of people bound together by common language, traditions, etc. 
  3. mass leisure
    • weekend
    • mass transportation
    • Mass society
  4. Mid-19th: “__” with promotion of economic growth and __, __, and __. The growth of the middle class led to the triumph of liberal practices: _(3)__, as well as the growth of __ as the __ was extended to all adult males. 
    • state
    • mass education
    • national armies by conscription
    • public health and housing
    • constitutional governments, parliaments, and principles of equality
    • political democracy
    • right to vote
  5. The Growth of Industrial Prosperity: there was stunning material growth produced by the second industrial revolution. The first: __/ Second: __
    • textiles, railroads, iron, coal
    • steel, chemicals, electricity, petroleum
  6. New Products: Changes
    •                                                               i.      Steel replaced iron
    • 1.      New methods of rolling and shaping steep made it useful in construction of lighter, smaller and faster machines and engines, railways, ships, etc.
    • a.      1860: Britain, France, Germany and Belgium= 125k tons of steelà 1913: 32 million
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      First Britain was leader, then Germany was producing twice as much as Britain, but US surpassed both
  7. New Products: Changes
    • 1.      Change in method of making sodaà France and Germany leaders in producing the alkalines used in textiles soap, etc.
    • 2.      German labs developed more organic chemical compounds than Britain= 1900: 90% of market for dyes and development of photographic plates and film
  8. New Products: Changes
    •                                                               i.      Electricity: new form of energy that could be converted
    • 1.      1870s: first generators of electrical current
    • 2.      1881: Britain had first public power station
    • 3.      1910: hydroelectric power stations and coal-fired steam-generating plants enabled entire districts to be tied in to a single power distribution system that provided common power source
  9. New Products: Changes
    New inventions
    • a.      Light bulb by Edison and Briton Joseph Swan
    • b.      Communications: telephone by Bell and radio waves sent by Guglielmo Marchoni
    • c.       First electric railway installed in Berlin in 1879à streetcars and subways replacing horse-drawn buses
    • d.      Conveyor belts, cranes, machines in factories
  10. New Products: Changes
    Electricity enabled
    1.      Electricity enabled cities that lagged behind in First IR to jump on board
  11. New Products: Changes
    International combustion engine
    • 1.      First was fired by gas and air in 1878, but unsuitable for widespread use as a source of power in transportation until liquid fuels like petroleum and its distilled derivatives were produced
    • 2.      An oil-fired engine made in 1897, and by 1902, the Hamburg-Amerika Line used oil on new ocean liners
  12. New Products: Changes
    International combustion engine in the end of the century
    • 1.      End of century: naval fleets using oil burners
    • 2.      This engine gave rise to automobile and airplane
    • a.      Light engine made by Gottlieb Daimler in 1886= key to development of automobile 
  13. New Products: Changes 
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      1900: world production= 9000 cars
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      1906: Americans overtook French lead
    • 1.      Henry Ford revolutionized car industry with Model T
    • a.      1916: Ford’s factories were producing 735k cars a year
  14. New Products: Changes 
    Air transportation
    • a.      Air transportation : Zepelin airship
    • b.      Kitty Hawk, Wilbur and Orvil Wright made first flight in fixed wing plane powered by gas engine (1903)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      First passenger air service: 1919