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2013-03-21 09:16:24
HON 122

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  1. I.                   Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
    • a.      19th: controversy over woman and work
    •                                                               i.      Working-class organizations tended to reinforce idea that women are for bearing and nurturing, not industrial
    •                                                             ii.      Men said keeping women out would ensure the moral and physical well-being of their families
  2. Reality
    • 1.      Reality: keeping women out made it easier to exploit them when they needed income to supplement their husbands’ wages or to support their families when husbands were unemployed
    • a.      Desperate need to work at times forced women to do marginal work at home or labor in sweatshops (tailoring trades done at home)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Poorly paid and worked for long hours
    • b.      Lowest paying jobs for cheapest goods were called slop work
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Women had no choice but to work there
  3. After 1870
    • a.      After 1870: new opportunities for women
    • b.      Although growth of heavy industry in mining and other meant fewer jobs for women, the larger industrial plants and expansion of government services created a larger number of service= white-collar jobs 
  4. White collar jobs
    •                                                               i.      Increased demand for white-collar workers at relatively low wages, coupled with a shortage of male workers, led employers to hire women
    •                                                             ii.      Big businesses and retail shops needed clerks, typists, etc.--> opportunities for women to be secretaries and telephone operators and take jobs in health and social services
  5. Compulsory education
    •                                                               i.      Compulsory education necessitated more teachers and the development of modern hospital servicesà increase in nurses
    •                                                             ii.      White collar jobs were unexciting; routine work; except for teaching and nursing, required few skills beyond basic literacy 
  6. Advantages
    • 1.      Still, there were advantages for daughters of middle classes and upward-aspiring working classes
    • a.      Freedom from domestic patterns expected of them
    • b.      Since they didn’t receive an education comparable to that of men, the careers they could pursue were limitedà they found it easier to fill jobs at lower end of middle-class occupations, especially in postal service
  7. Most White collar jobs
    •                                                               i.      Most white collar jobs filled by working-class women who wanted escape from dirty work of lower class
    • 1.      Did not increase position, but resulted in shift from industrial to white-collar sector of economy
  8. Lower-class women
    • a.      Many lower-class women still forced to prostitute
    •                                                               i.      Employment was unstable/ wages were low/ no longer protected by family, community and churchà prostitution
    • 1.      Some only active for short time and later rejoined workforce or married
  9. In some countries
    •                                                               i.      In some countries, prostitution was licensed and regulated by government and municipal authorities
    • 1.      Although Brit gov. provided minimal regulation of prostitution, it attempted to enforce the Contagious Diseases Act by giving authorities right to examine prostitutes for disease
    • a.      If infected= confined to lock hospital and given moral instruction
  10. Opposition of act
    • 1.      Act was opposed by middle-class female reformers
    • a.      Their leader, Josephine Butler, objected to laws that punished women but not men with same diseases
    • b.      Known as the “shrieking sisters” because they discussed sexual matters in public, they were successful in gaining repeal