Micro II Exam 3

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Micro II Exam 3
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Micro II Exam 3
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  1. because it is a short rod, it can be known as a coccobacillus
    Bordatella pertussis
  2. an airborne organism

    nonmotile

    grows well in and on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract
    Bordatella pertussis
  3. easily transmitted from person to person by droplet spray and nasal secretions
    Bordatella pertussis
  4. produces an exotoxin called "pertussis toxin"

    this causes most of the symptoms
    Bordatella pertussis
  5. affects mainly young children
    Bordatella pertussis
  6. the cilia of the respiratory tract are destroyed by the toxin excreted by this bacterium
    Bordatella pertussis
  7. there is no way for the excess mucous being produced to be removed from the tract except by intense coughing
    pertussis
  8. -per
    intense
  9. tussis
    cough
  10. the fits of coughing are prolonged and uncontrollable
    paroxysm

    pertussis
  11. the coughing fits are followed by a huge gasp of air that generates the characteristic "whoop" sound from which the disease got it's name
    whooping cough
  12. these may also be know as coccobacillus

    nonmotile

    this genus requires certain components of the blood for survival
    Haemophilus sp.
  13. Haemophilus means:
    blood loving
  14. components of Haemophilus sp.
    X-factor

    V-factor - it is a nucleotide
  15. has a polysaccaride capsule that increases its virulence greatly
    Haemophilus influenzae
  16. was once thought to be the sole cause of influenza
    Haemophilus influenzae
  17. known most often be a secondary infection of influenza
    Haemophilus influenzae
  18. known most often be a secondary infection of influenza
    bacterial influenza

    Haemophilus
    influenzae
  19. often causes an acute epiglottitis that can cause asphyxia
    Haemophilus influenzae
  20. before a vaccine was developed, it often caused meningitis in infants
    Haemophilus influenzae
  21. a common cause of acute conjuctivitis or "epidemic pinkeye" in school-aged children
    Haemophilus influenzae
  22. acute conjuctivitis or "epidemic pinkeye" in school-aged children was once attributed to a species
    Haemophilus aegyptius
  23. acute conjuctivitis or "epidemic pinkeye" in school-aged children is now known to be caused by a separate strain of
    H. influenzae
  24. causes the STD Chancroid
    Haemophilus ducreyi
  25. causes the formation of one or more tender raised lesions or papules on the genitals
    Haemophilus ducreyi

    • STD Chancroid
  26. the tender raised lesions or papules on the genitals are similar to the chancre of _______ but is soft
    syphilis

    STD Chancroid
  27. the tender raised lesions or papules on the genitals then develop into
    painful open lesions

    STD Chancroid
  28. infects the regional lymph nodes causing a painful swelling
    Haemophilus ducreyi

    • STD Chancroid
  29. may be known as a coccobacillus

    nonmotile

    a zoonosis that rarely affects humans
    Yersinia pestis
  30. causes the disease "the plague"
    Yersinia pestis
  31. spread by the bites of infected fleas

    usually the rat flea
    Yersinia pestis
  32. as the flea bites a new host, it regurgitates infectious material from its intestinal system into the bite wound; the bacteria then move through the lymph system to the lymph nodes and cause a painful infection and swelling
    Yersinia pestis
  33. the Yersinia pestis infection and swelling of a lymph node is called a ________ therefore the name _____ _____
    1. Bubo

    2. Bubonic plague
  34. if the infection moves into the bloodstream, it will commonly infect the lungs; this causes the condition of
    pneumonic plague
  35. a disease with high fatality rates

    can now spread the organism via droplet spray

    this form of the disease is considered to be an effective biological weapon
    pneumonic plague

    Yersinia pestis
  36. known as a coccobacillus

    nonmotile

    a zoonosis that is more likely to affect humans than Yersinia
    Francisella tularensis
  37. not uncommon in hunters or trappers after skinning wild animals

    especially rabbits
    Francisella tularensis
  38. it causes the disease tularemia or rabbit fever
    Francisella tularensis
  39. Francisella tularensis is spread in several ways a (1 of 5)
    inolculation of the skin or mucous membrane with blood or tissue of an infected animal
  40. Francisella tularensis is spread in several ways a (2 of 5)
    from the bite of an infected deer fly or tick
  41. Francisella tularensis is spread in several ways a (3 of 5)
    handling or eating insufficiently cooked meat
  42. Francisella tularensis is spread in several ways a (4 of 5)
    drinking contaminated water
  43. Francisella tularensis is spread in several ways a (5 of 5)
    handling contaminated pelts or paws of infected animals
  44. Francisella tularensis will cause the following symptoms (1 of 5)
    an ulcer at the site of infection
  45. Francisella tularensis will cause the following symptoms (2 of 5)
    swelling and tenderness of the surrounding lymph nodes
  46. Francisella tularensis will cause the following symptoms (3 of 5)
    high fever
  47. Francisella tularensis will cause the following symptoms (4 of 5)
    shaking chills
  48. Francisella tularensis will cause the following symptoms (5 of 5)
    debilitating headaches
  49. Francisella tularensis rarely causes death but...
    the fever may last for more than a month

    those who recover are often incapacitated for several weeks or even months
  50. Short, aerobic, gram-negative rods
    Bordatella pertussis

    Haemophilus sp.

    Yersinia pestis

    Francisella tularensis
  51. Spore-forming bacilli
    Bacillus sp.

    Clostridium sp.
  52. Aerobic Spore-forming bacilli
    Bacillus
  53. Anaerobic Spore-forming bacilli
    Clostridium
  54. the causitive agent of anthrax
    Bacillus anthracis
  55. gram-positive organism

    nonmotile

    primarily a zoonosis of herbivorous animals
    Bacillus anthracis
  56. the most common manifestation of Bacillus anthracis is as
    cutaneous anthrax
  57. usually acquired via injured skin or mucous membranes
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  58. spores are inoculated from the soil, contaminated animal or carcass, etc.
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  59. the spores germinate and the vegetative cells multiply
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  60. a gelatinous edema develop at the site of infection
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  61. a gelatinous edema develops into papules
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  62. papules change into vesicles
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  63. vesicles change into pustules
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  64. pustules change into necrotic ulcer
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  65. from the necrotic ulcer, it then enters the blood stream and causes septicemia
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  66. septicemia will likely lead to death
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  67. can manifest as pulmonary or respiratory anthrax
    cutaneous anthrax

    Bacillus anthracis
  68. ________ or _________ _________ is also known as Wool-Sorters disease
    pulmonary/respiratory anthrax

    Bacillus antracis
  69. transmitted via dust from infected animals or their hides
    pulmonary/respiratory anthrax

    Bacillus antracis
  70. once inhaled, the spores germinate quickly and the bacilli quickly enter the bloodstream; this causes septicemia and leads to death
    pulmonary/respiratory anthrax

    Bacillus antracis
  71. extremely rare manifestation of Bacillus antracis
    gastrointestinal or typhoidal anthrax
  72. affects the intestinal tract

    transmitted by eating the meat of infected animals
    gastrointestinal or typhoidal anthrax

    Bacillus antracis
  73. gram-positive organism

    motile with a single flagellum
    Clostridium tetani
  74. Clostridium tetani endospore formation
    occurs at the end of the bacillus

    it causes the classic (chicken) drumstick appearance
  75. the exotoxin of this bacterium that causes disease rather than the organism itself
    Clostridium tetani
  76. Clostridium tetani exotoxin
    tetanospasmin
  77. one of the most potent toxins known to man
    tetanospasmin
  78. portal of entry of Clostridium tetani
    the spores enter through a deep puncture wound
  79. modes of transmission of Clostridium tetani
    this is infectious but not communicable

    a person can be infected by the organism but is not able to transmit the disease to another
  80. modes of transmission of Clostridium tetani
    it is only transmitted through contaminated soil carrying the spores into a deep wound

    the soil may live for years in soil or contaminated feces
  81. the disease caused by the exotoxin tetanus
    Clostridium tetani
  82. once the spores have entered the wound they must wait for the wound to become anaerobic before they germinate
    Clostridium tetani
  83. the organism does not spread but produces the exotoxin that diffuses into surrounding tissue
    Clostridium tetani
  84. this exotoxin is then picked up by the blood and distributed systemically causing severe muscle spasms
    tetanus

    Clostridium tetani
  85. one of the first areas to be affected is the massiter muscle

    causing it to become paralyzed

    therefore the common name for the disease
    lock jaw

    tetanus

    Clostridium tetani
  86. eventually other muscles are affected and the entire body may be paralyzed
    tetanus

    Clostridium tetani
  87. spasms of the facial muscles cause the appearance of a fixed smile and raised eyebrows
    sardonic grin

    tetanus

    Clostridium tetani
  88. minor noises, the bed being jarred, or simply a draft may trigger spasms
    tetanus

    Clostridium tetani
  89. rigid chest muscles and throat spasms may lead to:(2)
    oxygen deprivation

    fatal suffocation

    Clostridium tetani exotoxin
  90. immunization can be accomplished woth the DPT vaccine

    the "T" stands for tetanus toxoid

    it lasts for up to 10 years
    Clostridium tetani exotoxin
  91. gram-positive organism

    motile with a single flagellum

    endospore formation occurs
    Clostridium perfringens
  92. the organisms are highly invasive because of the presence of a variety of exotoxins and enzymes that allow it to spread readily
    Clostridium perfringens
  93. there are as many as 12 different exotoxins produced by this organism
    Clostridium perfringens
  94. the exotoxins of this bacterium cause disease rather than the organism itself
    mainly the alpha toxin

    Clostridium perfringens
  95. Clostridium perfringens portal of entry
    deep puncture wound
  96. Clostridium perfringens mode of transmission (2):
    transmitted by contaminated soil carrying the spores into a deep wound

    transmitted via the fecal-oral route through contaminated food
  97. Clostridium perfringens pathogenicity (3)
    • 1.gas gangrene
    • 2. tissue gas
    • 3. food intoxication
  98. the death of otherwise normal tissue around a deep puncture wound
    gas gangrene
  99. it's distributed by bubbles of H+ & CO2 gas

    produced by the organism
    gas gangrene
  100. spreads rapidly and will readily cause death
    gas gangrene
  101. gas gangrene can only be treated by (3):
    • 1. surgical excision
    • 2. amputation
    • 3. hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  102. same condition as gas gangrene except occurs in only a non-living host
    tissue gas
  103. often spread via contaminated embalming instraments carrying spores
    tissue gas
  104. this organism may also cause a severe gastroenteritis
    food intoxication
  105. produced by the presence of spores in food that is kept warm (such as a buffet) which allows the spores to germinate
    food intoxication
  106. an enterotoxin is produced and ingested to cause the disease
    food intoxication
  107. gram positive organism

    motile with a single flagellum

    endospore formation occurs

    it is the exotoxins of this bacterium that causes disease rather than the organism itself; specifically neurotoxins
    Clostridium botulinum
  108. this toxin is the most poisonous natural substance known to man
    neurotoxins

    Clostridium botulinum
  109. most often occurs in home-canned foods

    these are often not heated enough to kill the spores
    Clostridium botulinum
  110. after canning the spores germinate and vegetative cells form

    release the exotoxin
    Clostridium botulinum
  111. the exotoxin causes a flaccid paralysis in the host
    Clostridium botulinum
  112. the neurotoxin attaches to the nerve at the point of contact with the muscle it controls causing paralysis
    Clostridium botulinum
  113. death is most often by asphixiation

    the diaphragm and the intercostal muscles become flaccis and cease to contract
    Clostridium botulinum
  114. could be prevented by simply heating the canned foods well enough after opening to inactivate the toxin
    Clostridium botulinum
  115. V factor
    Haemophilus sp.
  116. X factor
    a nucleotide

    Haemophilus sp.
  117. Usually acquired via injured skin or mucous membranes.
    Bacillus anthtacis
  118. Transmitted via dust from infected animals or their hides.
    Bacillus anthtacis
  119. Transmitted by eating the meat of infected animals.
    Bacillus anthtacis
  120. Those who recover are often incapacitated for several weeks or even months.
    Francisella tularensis
  121. The spores may live for years in soil or contaminated feces.
    Clostridium tetani
  122. The most poisonous natural substance known to man.
    Clostridium botulinum
  123. The exotoxin causes most of the symptoms.
    "pertussis toxin"
  124. The diaphragm and intercostal muscles become flaccid and cease to contract.
    Clostridium botulinum
  125. The death of otherwise normal tissue around a deep puncture wound.
    gas gangrene
  126. The condition is infectious but not communicable.
    Clostridium tetani
  127. The cilia of the respiratory system are destroyed by the toxin.
    Bordatella pertussis
  128. Spread via contaminated embalming instruments.
    tissue gas
  129. Spread by the bite of an infected flea.
    Yersinia pestis
  130. Shaking chills
    Francisella tularensis
  131. Requires certain components of the blood for survival.
    Haemophilus sp.
  132. Regurgitates infectious material from its intestinal system into the bite wound.
    Yersinia pestis
  133. Rat fleas
    Yersinia pestis
  134. Produces food intoxication by the presence of spores in food that is kept warm on a buffet.
    Clostridium perfringens
  135. Produces an exotoxin called 'pertussis toxin".
    Bordatella pertussis
  136. Primarily a zoonosis of herbivorous animals.
    Bacillus anthracis
  137. Paroxysm
    Bordatella pertussis
  138. Organisms are highly invasive because of a variety of exotoxins and enzymes.
    Clostridium perfringens
  139. One or more tender, raised lesions or papules on the genitals.
    Chancroid
  140. One form of the disease is considered to be an effective biological weapon(2 answers)
    pneumonic plague

    Yersinia pestis
  141. Once thought to be the sole cause of influenza.
    Haemophilus influenzae
  142. Occurs in home-canned foods.
    Clostridium botulinum
  143. Must wait for the wound to become anaerobic before spores can germinate
    Clostridium tetani
  144. Moves through the lymph system to the lymph nodes causing a painful swelling and infection.
    Yersinia pestis
  145. Most often a secondary infection of influenza.
    Haemophilus influenzae
  146. Most common manifestation is a cutaneous form.
    Bacillus anthracis
  147. Minor noises, jarring the bed, or a draft in the room may trigger muscle spasms.
    Clostridium tetani
  148. May die due to oxygen deprivation and fatal suffocation
    Clostridium tetani
  149. May be transmitted via the fecal-oral route into contaminated food.
    Clostridium perfringens
  150. Makes one of the most potent toxins known.
    Clostridium tetani

    tetanospasmin
  151. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
    Clostridium perfringens
  152. Has a "drumstick" appearance.
    endospore of Clostridium tetani
  153. Grows well on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract.
    Bordatella pertussis
  154. Fits of coughing followed by a huge gasp of air.
    "whooping cough"

    paroxysm

    Bordatella pertussis
  155. Fever may last for more than a month
    Francisella tularensis
  156. Distinguished by bubbles of hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases.
    Clostridium perfringens
  157. Death is most often by asphyxiation.
    Clostridium botulinum
  158. Common in hunters and trappers after skinning wild animals.
    Francisella tularensis
  159. Causes the look of a fixed smile and raised eyebrows.
    Clostridium tetani
  160. Causes severe muscle spasms.
    Clostridium tetani
  161. Causes a soft chancre.
    Haemophilus ducreyi
  162. Causes a flaccid paralysis.
    Clostridium botulinum
  163. Caused specifically by neurotoxins.
    Clostridium botulinum
  164. Can only be treated by surgical excision, amputation or oxygen therapy.
    Clostridium perfringens
  165. infection and swelling of a lymph node by Yersinia pestis
    Bubo
  166. Before a vaccine was developed, it often caused meningitis in infants.
    Haemophilus influenzae
  167. An STD that infects the regional lymph nodes.
    Chancroid

    Haemophilus ducreyi
  168. An STD
    Chancroid

    Haemophilus ducreyi
  169. Alpha toxin
    exotoxin of Clostridium perfringens
  170. Affects the masseter muscle.
    Clostridium tetani
  171. Affects mainly young children.
    pertussis toxin

    Bordatella pertussis
  172. A zoonosis that rarely affects humans.
    Yersinia pestis
  173. A zoonosis that is more likely to affect humans.
    Francisella tularensis
  174. A polysaccharide capsule increases its virulence.
    Haemophilus influenzae
  175. A disease with high fatality rates.
    Yersinia pestis
  176. "Sardonic grin"
    Clostridium tetani
  177. "lntense cough"
    pertussis
  178. "Blood-loving"
    Haemophilus

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