Latin America Test #3 Review

Card Set Information

Author:
XDragonFire23X
ID:
208770
Filename:
Latin America Test #3 Review
Updated:
2013-03-26 15:57:36
Tags:
Chapters
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 7: Race, Ethnicity, and Social Class Chapter 8: Latin America as a Cultural Region Chapter 9: Religion
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user XDragonFire23X on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What is Race?
    • The classification of people according to their genetics.
    • Ex. Black, White, Asian
  2. What is Ethnicity?
    • The classification of people according to their culture
    • Ex. Language, Religion, or Customs
  3. What is Ethnolinguistics?
    The shared culture that a group of people retain based on their linguistic characteristics. It is often utilized as a surrogate for ethnicity.
  4. Region with the Most Number of Languages
    • Africa
    • 2,011 Languages
    • 30% of the World's Total Language
  5. Amount of Indian Groups During Conquest and Important Indian Groups
    5,500 Indian Groups During COnquest

    • Only some were Developed Civilizations
    •  • Olmec
    •  • Teotihuacan
    •  • Maya
    •  • Aztecs (Nahuatl)
    •  • Chibcha
    •  • Inca
  6. Who are Chichimecas?
    Nomadic groups in Northern Mexico
  7. The Olmecs
    • - First civilized society in Middle America (2,000 BCE-200 BCE)
    • - Farmed in the swamps of Veracruz, Mexico and they built pyramids
    • - Strong centralized society with complex religion and astronomic interests
    • - Centralized authority declined by 200 BCE
  8. The Teotihuacan
    • - Around 200 CE to 500 CE and lived in the high mountain basins near Mexico City
    • - Constructed huge pyramids and used farmlands to support the city of 200,000 people
    • - They established trade routes into the southwestern/midwestern United States, the Caribbean, and to South America
    • - Declined by 700s Ce
  9. The Maya
    • - Developed in the highlands of northern Central America about 3000 BCE
    • - Expanded north into Yucatan and into northern Hounduras
    • - Larger cities start appearing in 600 BCE and decline in 800 BCE
  10. The Aztecs (Nahuatl)
    • - Arrived in the Basin of Mexico in the early 1300s
    • - Established capital at Tecnochtitlan
    • - They expanded control over territory extending into Central America
    • - Most important Mesoamerican power at the time of Spanish Conquest
    • - Defeated by Henry Cortes on April 21, 1521
  11. The Chavin
    • - Developed in the coastal desert environments of Peru and Ecuador about 900 BCE
    • - Utilized sophisticated systems of irrigation
    • - Influenced by The Olmecs
    • - Declined by 300 BCE
  12. The Hurai
    • - Peak period between 100 CE and 700 CE
    • - Expanded control beyond the area originally owned by the Chavin and also expanded into Andes, which required terracing technology
  13. Tiahuanaco
    • - Developed on the shores of Lake Titicaca (Bolivia) as early as 700 CE
    • - Large urban society and had terracing and drained field farming technology
    • - Declined by the 1100 CE
  14. The Chibcha
    • - Lived in small agricultural villages in the valleys of the eastern Cordillera (Columbia)
    • - Well known for their skills in gold working
  15. The Inca
    • - Greatest Amerindian Empire ever to develop in South America
    • - Expanded control over an elo0ngated region of the Andes
    • - Transportation networks and integration efforts were impressive
    • - Constructed an extensive system of roads and bridges in the Andes and nearby places
    • - Conquered by the Spaniards on November 8, 1533
  16. Eastern Lowland Peoples
    • Southern Hunters:
    • • Ona - hunter/gatherers (h/g) in Tierra del Fuego
    • • Tehuelche - h/g in Patagonia
    • • Puechle - h/g in Pampa
    • • Charrua - h/g in Pampa

    • Tropical Forest Dwellers:
    • • Ge - h/g in central and eastern Brazil
    • • Ciboney - h/g in Cuba and Hispaniola
    • • Guarani - h/g in Paraguay
    • • Arawaks (Caribs) - farmers in the Caribbean
  17. Common Indian Traits
    • • Communal (rather than private) land use
    • • Residence in small rural settlements
    • • Emphasis is on human food production, rather than animal grazing
    • • Adequate food supplies
    • • High population densities in certain areas
    • • Lower incidence of infections (contagious) disease
  18. Impacts of European Conquest and Settlements
    • • Many changes occurred as a result of European conquest in as little as 150 years
    • - Decline of Indian population (mostly due to disease)
    • - Establishment of the African slave trade
    • - Migration of Europeans to the Americas
    • - It caused exchange of plants/animals and ideas/technologies
  19. Causes of Indian Depopulation
    • - Infectious Disease (Small pox, measles, bubonic plague, ext)
    • - Conversion from aboriginal food crops to Europeans food crops
    • - Conversion of aboriginal farmland to European-dominated grazing land
  20. Old/New World Foods
    New World - Cacao (chocolate), chile (nightshade family), corn (maize) dog, pinto beans, potato (ns family) tobacco, and tomato (ns family)

    Old World - Cattle, chicken, goat, horse, pig, sheep, and wheat
  21. The African Slave Trade
    • Spain adopted the asiento system; sontracting for slaves imported by Portugal, England, Netherlands, and France
  22. Living Conditions in the New World
    • • Slaves in Spanish and Portuguese were guaranteed these basic human rights deprived from Roman Law
    • - Right to Life
    • - Basic protection from abuse (woman/children)
    • - Right to own property
    • - Right to purchase freedom
    • • However these rights were denied to slaves in the British, Dutch, and French colonies
  23. Limiting the Slave System
    Emancipation - Setting the slaves free

    Abolition - outlawing the slave trade
  24. Miscegenation
    - Racial mixing resulting from intermarriage
  25. Dates of Abolition of African Slave Trade and Emancipation
    Country:    Abolition of Slaves:  Emancipation:   

    - Cuba                   1820                 1880

    - Brazil                   1888                 1888
  26. Classification of Selected Racial Terms
    Coyote - 1/4 European and 3/4 Indian

    Mulatto - 1/2 European and 1/2 Afican

    Morisco - 3/4 European and 1/4 African

    Lobo - 3/4 Indian and 1/4 African

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview