A&P Chapter 14: The brain and cranial nerves

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evander4
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A&P Chapter 14: The brain and cranial nerves
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2013-03-28 15:56:20
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Chapter 14
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The brain and cranial nerves
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  1. What are the 6 main structures of the brain in order of increasing complexity?
    • 1. Medulla oblongata
    • 2. Pons
    • 3. Midbrain
    • 4. Diencephalon
    • 5. Cerebellum
    • 6. Cerebrum
  2. What are the 4 protective structures of the brain?
    • 1. Dura mater: endosteal layer is connected to the cranium; meningeal layer is connected to the arachnoid mater
    • 2. Arachnoid mater: where CSF circulates
    • 3. Pia mater: attached directly to the surface of the brain
    • 4. CSF: cushions and allows the brain to float
  3. Where is the CSF and what structures make it?
    • -CSF is located in the 4 ventricles, the arachnoid mater and the central canal of the spinal cord
    • -Ependymal cells line the walls of the ventricles and produce CSF from nutrients in the blood
    • -Choroid plexuses are networks of permeable capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells
  4. How does CSF circulate and return to the blood?
    • 1. CSF circulates from the choroid plexus through the ventricles and fills the central canal of the spinal cord
    • 2. CSF diffuses into the interstitial fluid
    • 3. CSF reaches the subarachnoid space through the lateral and medial apertures in the roof of the 4th ventricle
    • 4. Arachnoid villi are fingerlike projections that penetrate the meningeal layer of the dura mater and release waste CSF into the bloodstream
  5. What is the BBB and how is it formed and what does it do?
    • 1. BBB: Blood brain barrier
    • 2. Formed by tight junction connections between capillary endothelial cells (which are covered by astrocytes)
    • 3. The BBB restricts the substances that have access to the neural tissue; small lipid soluble compounds may pass freely
    • 4. Astrocytes secrete chemicals that control the endothelial membrane permeability
  6. What are the vital centers and functions of the medulla oblongata?
    • 1. Connects the brain to the spinal cord
    • 2. Coordinates complex autonomic reflexes
    • 3. Controls visceral functions: cardiovascular centers, respiratory rhythmicity centers
  7. What are the vital centers and functions of the pons?
    • 1.Sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerves: V, VI, VII, VIII
    • 2. Nuclei involved with respiration: Apeuistic and pneumotaxic centers modify rhythmicity cetner activity
    • 3. Nuclei that process and relay info to and from the cerebellum
  8. What are the vital centers and functions of the cerebellum?
    • 1. Adjusts postural muscles
    • 2. Fine tunes conscious and subconscious movements
    • 3. 2 Cerebellar hemispheres separated at midline by the vermis
    • 4. Arbor vitae: "tree of life" white matter that relays information to Purkinje cells
    • 5. Purkinje cells: gray matter, computing interneurons
  9. What are the vital centers and functions of the midbrain?
    • 1. Corpora quadrigemina: 2 pairs of sensory nuclei; superior colliculus (visual); inferior colliculus (auditory)
    • 2. Substantia nigra: dark pigmented gray matter; controls fine motor/muscle movement through inhibition; dopaminergic neurons
  10. What are the vital centers and functions of the diencephalon?
    • 1. Integrates sensory information and motor commands
    • 2. Thalamus: post office of the brain; directs sensory information to the basal nuclei and cerebral cortex on white matter tracts deep in the cortex; right and left
    • 3. Hypothalamus: integrates endocrine and nervous control of the body; infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
    • 4. Epithalamus: pineal gland; secretes melatonin; circadian rhythm
  11. What is the limbic system?
    • 1. Processing memory; creates emotional states, drives and associated behaviors
    • 2. Cerebral components: hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, limbic lobe
    • 3. Diencephalic components: thalamus, hypothalamus
    • 4. Reticular formation
  12. What are the functions of white matter in the cerebrum?
    • -The superhighway to transport action potentials
    • 1. Association fibers: connect areas on the same hemisphere
    • 2. Commissural fibers: connect areas across the hemispheres
    • 3. Projection fibers: connect cerebrum with inferior areas (thalamus)
  13. What are the functions of gray matter in the cerebrum?
    • -Sophisticated processing
    • 1. Basal nuclei: embedded in white matter; direct subconscious activites
    • 2. Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned movement patterns (the arm has to be in a certain position to pick up a piece of paper, getting the arm into the correct position is controlled by the basal nuclei)
  14. What are the areas of the cerebral cortex?
    • *Cortexes recognize the stimulus
    • 1. Frontal lobe: primary motor cortex directs voluntary moments
    • 2. Parietal lobe: primary sensory cortex provides awareness of stimulus on certain area of the body
    • 3. Occipital lobe: visual cortex recognizes info from sight receptors
    • 4. Temporal lobe: Auditory cortex recognizes info from sound receptors; olfactory cortex (deep) info from odor receptors
    • 5. Insula: gustatory cortex info from taste receptors
  15. What are the association areas and where are they located on the cerebral cortex?
    • *association areas analyze, interpret and make decisions about stimulus received
    • 1. Somatic sensory association area: interprets input from primary sensory cortex; parietal lobe
    • 2. Visual association area: interprets activity in visual cortex; occipital lobe
    • 3. Auditory association area: monitors auditory cortex; temporal lobe
    • 4. Somatic motor association area: coordinates/initiates motor responses; frontal lobe
  16. What are integrative centers?
    • *Combines information from multiple association areas
    • 1. Wernicke's area: receives info from all sensory association areas; coordinates complex visual and auditory memories; language analysis
    • 2. Broca's area: speech center; coordinates all vocalization functions
    • 3. Prefrontal cortex: abstract intellectual activities; predicts consequences of actions
  17. What is hemispheric lateralization?
    • *Functional differences between the R and L hemispheres of the brain
    • 1. Left hemisphere: math, science, analytical, reading, writing, speech, language, decision making; dominant in R handed people
    • 2. Right hemisphere: creative, senses, emotions, recognition of faces, voice inflections
  18. N I
    • 1. Olfactory nerve
    • 2. Sensory - smell
    • 3. Destination - olfactory bulbs
  19. N II
    • 1. Optic nerve
    • 2. Sensory - vision
    • 3. Destination - diencephalon via optic chasm
  20. N III
    • 1. Oculomotor Nerve
    • 2. Motor - eye movements
    • 3. Destination - ocular muscles
  21. N IV
    • 1. Trochlear nerve
    • 2. Motor - eye movements
    • 3. Destination - oblique ocular muscles
  22. N V
    • 1. Trigeminal nerve
    • 2. Both - sensory and motor
    • 2. Destination - muscles of mastication and sensory nuclei in pons
  23. N VI
    • 1. Abducens
    • 2. Motor - eye movement
    • 3. Destination - lateral rectus muscle
  24. N VII
    • 1. Facial nerves
    • 2. Both - sensory and motor
    • 3. Destination - sensory nuclei of pons and muscles of facial expression
  25. N VIII
    • 1. Vestibulocochlear nerve
    • 2. Sensory - balance and equilibrium and hearing
    • 3. Destination - vestibular and choclear nuclei of pons and medulla oblongata
  26. N IX
    • 1. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    • 2. Both - sensory and motor
    • 3. Destination - sensory nuclei of medulla oblongata and nerves in swallowing and salivary gland
  27. N X
    • 1. Vagus nerve
    • 2. Both - sensory and motor
    • 3. Destination: autonomic centers of the medulla oblongata and visceral muscles
  28. N XI
    • 1. Accessory nerves
    • 2. Motor - muscles of neck and upper back
    • 3. Destination - muscles of palate, pharynx and larynx, and sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
  29. N XII
    • 1. Hypoglossal nerve
    • 2. Motor - tongue movements
    • 3. Destination - muscles of the tongue

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