The Roaring Twenties/The Great Depression
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What were the The Red Scare?
- The Russian revloution
- Labor Unrest/Terrorist attacked
Why was the Russian Revolution a cause of the red scare?
- In nov. 1917 communist took over russia
- a small communist party was formed in the United States
- Creates a fear of communism in the US
What is Xenophobia?
the fear of anything foreign
Why was Labor unrest/terrorist attacks a cause of the red scare?
- after WWI, there were 100s of strikes and several mail bombings
- both were blamed on communist and socialist
What act was allowed to remain in effect?
What were the Palmer Raids?
radicals were arrested, put in prison, or deported
What was the quota system?
said each country could have the number of immigrants equal to 2% of its population i 1890 census
In the Sacco-Vanzetti case what were the convicted for?
Itailian immigrants convicted of murder
What was the Liberal response to the Sacco- Vanzetti case?
they were convicted because they were radical immigrants
What happened to Sacco and Vanzetti?
despite world-wide protest they were executed
What was the significance of the Sacco Vanzetti case?
- became the symbol of the red scare and helps end the red scare
What do big business use the red scare for?
break up unions
What came with the revival of the KKK?
- the height of the KKK
- controlled several state governments
- popular all over the country
- opposed blacks, immigrants, catholics and jews
What was the Red Summer of 1919?
over 100 blacks were lynched
What was Marcus Garvery's UNIA (united negro improvement association)?
Org. to send blacks back to Africa(willingly)
What happened to Marcus Garvey?
ended up in jail for fraud
What was Harding's Character?
weaknesses: women, gambling, and liquor
How did Harding feel about big buisness?
The Twenties were a time of ______?
What was the Fordney-McCumber Tariff?
raises tariff to a new all time high
What was the Department of Commerce?
set up to help buisness not regulate it
Who was the Ohio Gang?
Harding's friends who used their government positions for personal gain
Who was Henry M Daugherty?
head of the Ohio Gang
Who was Charles Forbes?
- involved in taking money through construction companies
- ohio gang
What was Teapot Dome(with Albert Fall)?
- involved the selling oil reserves to private companies
- ohio gang
How did and when did Harding die?
died in 1923 if a heart attack
Who ran in the election of 1924?
- rep- coolidge
- Al Smith-North, Catholic, anti-prohibtion
- William McAdoo-south
- John W. Davis-compromise canidate
What were the issues of the election 1924?
scandals vs. prosperity
What were the results of the election of 1924?
Coolidge won big
What was Republican Prosperity?
- Coolidge continued to support big business
- farmers and labor did not share in prosperity
What happened with Urbanization?
- 1920-first time in american history that tere are more people living in cites
- clash of cultures between urban and rural areas
What was the Volstead Act?
put 18th into effect
What was the problem with prohibtion?
too hard enforce because nobody obeyed it
What were the ways to by-pass prohibition?
What were bootleggers?
people who sold illegal alchol
What were speakeasies?
What did the organized crime do?
- supplied alcohol to speakeasies
- mostly in big cities
- Al Capone- Kingpin of Chiacago
What was the Elvolution-Scopes Trial(monkey trial)?
- TN law in 1925 made it illegal to teach evolution
- Scopes-biology teacher who broke the law by teaching evolution
- Trial became national event
What were the results of the evolution scopes trial?
- scopes found guilty
- made evolution more acceptable
What was the importance of transportation?
brought Urban ideas to rurual areas
What was the #1 form of transportation?
What were airplanes mainly used for in 20s?
Who was Charles Lindbergh?
first non-stop solo flight over atlantic in 1927
What was the first Radio station?
What was Jazz largely based on? Who were the main jazz people?
- african americans
- Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, George Gershwin
What was the Lost Generation?
writers who were affected by the war
What was the them of the Lost Generation?
critized the empty lifestyle of american buisness and society
Who is the most famous writer of the Lost Generation?
F Scott Fitzgerald the great gatsby
What the Harlem Renaissance? Who was the major writer?
- black literary movement
- Langston Hughes
Who was Rudolph Valentino?
silent movie actor
What was the first talking movie?
The Jazz Singer
what happend with sports in 20s?
professional sports became popular
Who ran in the election of 1928?
- Rep-herbet hoover
- dem- al smith
- hoover wins
What were the causes of the great depression?
- Agricultrial overproduction
- Industrial overproduction
- unequal distribution of wealth
- weak foreign economy
- easy credit
- stock market speculation
- The Crash of stockmarket
What was happening with agricultural overproduction?
- farmers still producing at WWI levels and prices dropped
- farmers answers was to produce more
Higher profits did not mean____?
What happened in 1929?
top 5% of the pop. earned 25% of the nations income
What was the foreign economy hurt by?
US tariff policy
What was buying on the margin?
- you could borrow up to 75% of the stock price
- people, corp., and banks invested everything they had
- not enough money on hand to cover debts
What was the problem with stock market?
money was not invested in real economy
What was the Impact of the Great Depression?
- People lost all they hand
- banks and buisness failed
- 13 million people lost their jobs
- farm prices dropped 60%
- Cyclical Effect
- Psychological effect
What was the Psychological effect of the depression?
- americans had believed that hard work= success
- The Panic gave way to despiration and despair
What was Hoover's Character?
- "Rugged Individulism"
- each person is responsible for themselves
What were Hoover's choices?
- voluntary action-country fixes itself
- government relief
- Hoover tired voluntary action first, then government relief
What was Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
raised tarriff to all time high EVERR
What was the reconstruction finance corporation?
- gave loans to banks, business, and state and local gov.
- purpose was to stimulate the economy by helping buisness
What was the public works program?
put people to work on gov. contruction projects
What did Hoover veto?
some programs that would have provided relief
Why did Hoover fail?
- acted to slowly
- did not provide immediate relief
- congress did not cooperate with him
- Hoover did more than he was given credit for, but still blamed for depression and was unpopular
- bonus army
What was the Bonus Army?
- 1924-Congress voted to give WWI veterans a bonus payment in 1945
- 1932- 20,000 unemployed veterans marched on Washington and demand they be given money
What was the congress action to Bonus Army?
What was Hoover's action to the Bonus Army?
- offered to pay Veterans way home
- Hoover has the army force the rest of them home
What was the result of the Bonus Army?
basically killed Hoover's rep.
Who ran in the election 1932?
What were the results of the election of 1932?
- FDR wins
- democrats take full control of congress
- 20th amendment-moves inauguration to Jan.
- 21st amendment- repealed prohibtion
Why was FDR successful?
- fact that depression had reached rock bottom
- willing to act and act fast
- gave people confidence
- FDR's advisors
Who was Frances Perkins?
- first woman cabinet member
- sec of labor
What was the Brain Trust?
college professors who helped write much of the new deal
Who was Harry Hopkins?
Roosevelt's closest friend and advisors
What were the 100 days?
first 100 days of FDR's adminstration during which much of the new deal was passed
What were the problems with the first new deal programs?
- some programs were not effective
- dust bowl
- supreme court
What was the dust bowl?
drought that forced many farmers on the plains to move to california- the okies
What was the Grapes of Wrath?
story of the Okies and promotes socialism
What was the American Liberty Leauge?
- said new deal was deal too radical
- made up of mainly buisnessmen
What did the Socialists say about new deal?
- not radical enough
- Upton Sinclair-barley lost governets race in california on end poverty in california
Who was Father Charles Coughlin?
had radio program that critcized the new deal for not doing enough
Who was Frances Townshed?
said give the elderly 200 a month, but they had to spend it by the end of the month
Who was Huey Long?
democratic senator for Louisiana who was the biggest danger to FDR
What did Huey Long's Share the Wealth say?
- idea was to make every man a king
- give every family a house, a car, and 5,000
- 100% tax on all income over a million dollars
What happened to Huey Long?
assisinated in 1935
Why was the second new deal passed?
to deal with problems of the first one
What did FDR support?
What was the CIO?
- made up of unskilled workers
- founded by john l lewis
What was the Purpose of the FDR's court packing scheme?
keep supreme court from declaring anymore of the new deal unconstituonal
What was the plan of the court packing scheme?
president could appoint an additionl judge for every justice over the age of 70
What was the problem of the court packing scheme?
congress refused to agree and people did not support it
What was the result of the court packing scheme?
supreme court was friendlier to new deal
What brought the end of the new deal?
- loss of interest
- Roosevelt Recession
- Congressional elections of 1938
- World Problems
What was the Roosevelt Recession?
- almost as bad as beginnning of depression
- caused many to question the sucess of new deal
What were the congressional elections of 1938?
- FDR campaigned against those who opposed the new deal, including many democrats
- Result- every democrat he campaigned against won
What was the effectiveness of the new deal?
did not end the depression, but did bring relief
What were the political results of the new deal?
- increased power of federal gov. and president
- increased size of bureaucray
- new democratic coalition- made up of blacks, farmers, cites , labor, women
What is Keynesian Economics?
- deficit spendeing
- gov spends more than it takes in
What were the economic results of new deal?
- Keynesian econ.
- socialism brought into econ.
- growth of labor unions
What were the social changes after the new deal?
- blacks continue to move north
- minorites gained some acceptance
- growth of west
What is the assessment of FDR?
- US surives another constitunal crisis
- fundamentally transformed america
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