biology lab

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kaitiek09
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208785
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biology lab
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2013-03-25 21:39:59
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sfsu bio 240 lab fc
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lab practical #2
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  1. what kind of species reproduce sexually
    eukaryotric species
  2. three types of asexual reproduction
    • parthogenesis
    • polyembryony
    • budding
  3. 4 benefits of asexual reproduction
    • no mate needed
    • produces more offspring per reproductive episode
    • faster
    • less investment
  4. three benefits of sexual reproduction
    • increase in variation in alleles
    • increase in rate of adaptation
    • elimation of harmful genes
  5. a form of sexual reproduction in which growth and dvelopment of embryo occurs without fertilization
    parthogenesis
  6. aphid life cycle reproduction depends on season which seasons coincide with what reproduction type
    • asexual (partho) spring and summer
    • sexual fall
  7. spring and summer aphids differences between fall 3
    • eggs w/o fertilization
    • no wings
    • cant take winter
  8. fall aphids difference between spring and summer 2
    • both sexes hatch
    • eggs last through the winter and have wings
  9. two or more embryos develop from a single fertilized egg
    polyembryo
  10. type of organism that undergo polyembryony
    flukes
  11. how do many invertebrates reproduce asexually
    budding
  12. break of the body into pieces in which develop into adults
    fragmentation
  13. fragmentation is accompanied by
    regeneration
  14. polyp and medusa form difference
    • attatched to the group
    • free swimming
  15. type of life cycle in which the embryo develops directly into a form that looks like the adult
    simple life cycle
  16. life cycle in which the larva doesnt resemble the adult form
    complex
  17. simple life cycle order 4
    • zygote
    • embryo
    • juvenile
    • adult
  18. complex life cycle order 5
    • zygote
    • embryo
    • larva
    • juvenile
    • adult
  19. two types of complex life cycles that insects have
    • hemimetabolous
    • holometabolous
  20. the hard exoskeleton forces insects to molt and grow bigger
  21. two characteristics of hemimetabolous life cycles
    • egg, nymph, adult
    • wings develop gradually through several molts
  22. half change life cycle
    hemi
  23. complete change life cycle
    holo
  24. larva, pupa, winged adult life cycle
    holometa
  25. embryo develops in egg outside parent
    oviparity
  26. embryo develops inside parent
    viviparity
  27. embryo develops inside parent
    ovoviviparityt
  28. receives nutrition from yolk
    ovi
  29. recieves more nutrition than just yolk
    vivi
  30. only receives nutrition from yolk
    ovovivi
  31. example sea stars and sea urchins
    echinodermata
  32. example crustaceans and bugs
    arthtopoda
  33. examples of snails, slugs, squids, and octopus
    mollusca
  34. example jellies, hydra, corals, and anemones
    cnidaria
  35. example marine and terrestrial worms
    annelids
  36. example round worms
    nematodaa
  37. example of flat worms
    plathelminthes
  38. endoderm consists of
    internal layer
  39. ectoderm consists of
    external layer
  40. mesoderm consists of the
    middle layer
  41. endoderm layer consists of these three cells
    • lung
    • thyroid
    • pancreatic
  42. ectoderm layer consists of these three cells
    • skin cells of epidermis
    • neuron of brain
    • pigment cell
  43. mesoderm layer consists of these five cells
    • cardiac muscle
    • skeletal muscle cell
    • tubule cell of kidney
    • rbc
    • smooth muscle
  44. a zygote in sexual reproduction undergoes rapid cell division called
    cleavage
  45. the cleavage leads to the formation of
    blastula
  46. the blastula undergoes _____ forming a _____
    • gastrulation
    • gastrula
  47. the gastrula tissues differentiate into three layers
    • ecto
    • meso
    • endoderm
  48. when the blastopore during gastrulation it connects the
    archenteron to the exterior of the gastrula
  49. protosome occurs in what kind of class 3
    • arthropods
    • annelids
    • mollusks
  50. deuterotome occurs in what kind of class 2
    • echinoderms
    • chordate
  51. germ layer that covers the embyros surface and becomes skin and central NS
    ecto
  52. middle layer that becomes skeletal tissue, muscles, organs
    meso
  53. the innermost germ layer in which becomes the linning of the organs and other tissues
    endo
  54. diploblastic germ layers
    which is this found
    triploblastic germ layers
    which is this found
    • ecto and endo, cnidarians
    • all three, all bilaterians
  55. grouping of body parts into discrete segments
    example organism
    • segmentation
    • centipede
  56. animals head is the grouping of sensory organs, feeding organs, and center or neural intergration
    cephalization
  57. a group of segments organized into functional units
    tagmosis
  58. example of tagmosis
    head, thorax, and abdomen appendages in arthropods
  59. many triploblastic organisms posses a body cavity
  60. a true body cavity is called _____ and is derived from _____
    • coelom
    • mesoderm
  61. three functions of coelom
    • provides space for different organs
    • gives flexibility of the body so the animal can move freely
    • hydrostatic skeleton
  62. what lines the coelom and where does it liner
    mesoderm lines the coelom both inside the body wall and around the gut
  63. coelomate example
    worm
  64. pseudocoelomate example
    round worm
  65. is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm
    pseudocoelomate
  66. triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity
    acoelomates
  67. acoelomate example
    flat worm
  68. a fluid filled cavity surrounded by muscles that contract in an antagonistic manner
    hss
  69. 2 muscles of the hss
    circular and longitudinal muscles
  70. three functions of the hss
    • structure
    • protection
    • locomotion
  71. what two kinds of animals have hss
    • cold blooded animals
    • soft bodied animals
  72. what four classes have hss
    • cnidaria
    • platyhelminthes
    • nematoda
    • annelids
  73. three features of cnidarian anemone
    • sea water is hs fluid
    • antagonistic contraction of cir and longi muscles
    • hss provides structure and locomotion
  74. 4 features of the platyhelminthes
    • mesenchyme is hs fluid
    • ciliated bottom
    • antagonistic contraction
    • secretes mucus and glides over surface on cilia
  75. 4 features of nematodes
    • pseudocoel is hs fluid
    • thrashing movement
    • only longitudinal muscles
    • hss provides structure and locomotion 
  76. 4 features of annelids
    • body segments have coelomic fluid
    • peristaltic wave movement
    • antagonistic contraction
    • hss provides struct and loco
  77. another type of segmented worm that have brsitles on their segments
    polychaeta
  78. bristles on the polychaeta are called
    setae
  79. segments of the polychaeta are called
    parapodia
  80. two characteristics of the wvs
    • hard exoskeleton
    • water is pumped through body for locomotion
  81. what two kinds of classes have wvs
    • echinoderms
    • molluscus
  82. two features of echinoderms
    • seawater as hs fluid
    • pump water into their body at madreporite and out of their tube feet
  83. two features of molluscus
    • hemocoel
    • inflates sinuses of the body with hemocoel
  84. blood mix
    hemocoel
  85. phylum that has a hard calcium shell
    mollusca
  86. the two most diverse phylum
    • mollusca
    • arthropoda
  87. experience adaptive radiation
    mollusca
  88. adaptive radiation
    a group of organisms that have a suite of features that allows them to move into and thrive in different environments
  89. 6 important features of the mollusc body plan
    • foot
    • mantle
    • visceral mass
    • shell
    • ctenidium
    • radula
  90. mollusc muscle used for crawling, swimming, gripping, or burrowing
    foot
  91. in shelled molluscs, dorsal tissue overlying the visceral mass
    mantle
  92. the main part of the mollusc that contains the internal organs
    visceral mass
  93. gills in molluscs used for respiration in aquatic molluscs
    ctenidium
  94. used for scraping and feeding in a molluscs
    radula
  95. is a converey belt of teeth that scrapes to feed off algae
    radula
  96. udergoes torsion when developing
    molluscs
  97. visceral mass rotates 180 deg to one side during development, such that the anus is situated more or less above the head
    torsion
  98. 4 classes of molluscs
    • polyplacophora
    • bivalvia
    • gastropoda
    • cephalopoda
  99. example of polyplacophora
    chitons
  100. primitive mollusc
    polyplacophora
  101. shell plates of chitons are surrounded by a structure known as
    girdle
  102. modified mantle around the edge of the shell
    girdle
  103. four features of polyplacophora
    • no tentacles or eyes
    • uses girdle hairs and light sensative receptors
    • feeds at night with specialized radula
    • foot and girdle grab tight to substrate
  104. 3 features of the class bivalvia
    • two shells hinged together at top
    • two adductor muscles pull the valves closed
    • ciliated gills for feeding and respiration
  105. as class bivalvia evolved it lost
    head and radula
  106. how does class bivalvia stabilize itself
    hatchet shaped foot used for burrowing in soft substrate
  107. mussels anchors themselves by fibrous threads known as
    byssal threads
  108. three features of the oysters
    • cement their hard shell to the surface
    • no foot or siphon
    • open shell to bring water over gills
  109. three features of scallops
    • dont attach to rocks
    • can swim for short distances (clap together)
    • light sensitive eye spots around the mantle edge
  110. largest and most diverse group of molluscs due to adaptive radiation
    gastropoda
  111. most significant modification of gastropoda is
    torsion
  112. muscular foot on gastropods function as
    crawling, using ciliated cells on the underside secrete a mucus tail
  113. example of prosobranchia
    • sea snails
    • abalone
    • limpets
  114. unique structure of the prosobranchia
    operculum that closes shell and protects soft body
  115. 4 features of the prosobranchia
    • foot creates vacuum seal to hold them to rocks
    • can withraw completely into their shell
    • can close off shell with operculum
    • eat algae
  116. 4 features of the abalone
    • spiral shape protects abalones foot
    • holes on edge of shell serve several functions
    • thrive in water that is well oxygenated by strong waves
    • eats kelp and macro algae
  117. three functions of abalone holes on the edge of the shell
    • release sperm and eggs
    • discharge metabolic wastes
    • allows water to flow out after passing through animals gill chamber
  118. 2 features of the nudibrachs
    • lack a shell
    • naked gills because their respiratory structures are exposed
  119. are grazing carnivores and cannibals
    nudibrachs
  120. example of opisthobranchia
    nudibrachs
  121. examples of pulmonata
    land snails and slugs
  122. due to evolution of land snails and slugs they have lost
    gills
  123. unique structure of pulmonata land snails
    mantle cavity closed except for a single opening called the pneumostome
  124. feature of the subclass pulmonata
    mantle cavity converted to air breathing lung
  125. have color changing pigments and ink sacs and agile swimming abilities to escape predators
    cephalopoda
  126. cephalopoda have _____ but use _____to tear their prey
    • radula
    • beaks
  127. pushes head down toward foot
    cephalopoda
  128. two features of class cephalopoda
    • well developed eyes to detect prey and color
    • reduction or total loss of shell
  129. how do cephalopoda swim
    by forcing water out of its siphon via jet propulsion
  130. fins of the squid function
    act as stabilizers
  131. how do squid grab their prey
    shoot out their tentacles via hydrostatic pressue
  132. how do squid move back and forth
    by changing the direction of the siphon
  133. the shell of the squid is known as
    the pen
  134. what two animals have 8 arms and 2 tentacles
    squid and cuttle fish
  135. the shell of the cuttlebone aids in
    buoyancy
  136. two features of cuttle fish
    • fins run along the side
    • body is flattened
  137. because an ocotopus has no shell, what is it able to do
    collapse its body into small spaces
  138. 5 features of arthropods
    • segmented body
    • hard exoskel
    • jointed appendages
    • open circulatory
    • dorsal brain ventral nerve cord
  139. three types of material exoskeletons of arthropods have
    • chitin
    • sclerotin
    • calcium carbonate
  140. fusion of segments into different body regions such as head thorax and abdomen
    tagmosis
  141. legs on segments of head become specialized for feeding and sensing the environment
    specialization of appendages
  142. two types of legs
    • biramous
    • uniramous
  143. leg branches into two segments and each branch consists of a series of segments attached end to end
    biramous
  144. a single series of segments attached end to end
    uniramous
  145. chelicerae and pedipalps function 3
    • feeding
    • mating
    • fighting
  146. chelicerae and pedipalps are found in
    chelicerates
  147. name of first two appendages of myriapoda, crustacae, and hexapoda
    mandibles and maxillae
  148. trilobita example
    extinct trilobites
  149. cheliceriformes example
    • horseshoe crab
    • spiders
    • scorpions
  150. myriapoda exmaples
    centi and millipedes
  151. crustacae example
    • crab
    • lobster
    • shrimp
  152. hexapoda example
    insects
  153. two phylum closely related to arthropoda
    • tardigrada
    • onychophora
  154. how are tardigrada and onychophora similar to arthropoda 4
    • non living cuticle covers body
    • appendages on body
    • segmentation
    • antennae
  155. how are tardigrada and onychophora different to arthropoda 2
    • soft exoskeleton
    • appendages arent jointed
  156. tardigrada example
    onychophora example
    • water bearer
    • velvet worms
  157. 4 characteristics of trilobita (extinct)
    • marine
    • head and body segments
    • biramous
    • 1 pair of antennae
  158. 3 features of cheliceriformes
    • two segment
    • 6 pairs of appemdages
    • uniramous
  159. two segments of the cheliceriformes
    • cephalothorax
    • abdomen
  160. 6 pairs of appendages of cheliferiformes consists of
    • chelicerae
    • pedipalps
    • 4 pairs of legs
  161. leg appendage cheliceriformes
    uniramous
  162. 4 features of myriapoda
    • terrestrial
    • 1 pair antennae
    • mandible and maxillae
    • uniramous legs
  163. myriapoda
    carnivore and herbivore
    • centipede
    • millipede
  164. 5 features of crustacae
    • marine and freshwater
    • 2 pairs of antennae
    • mandibles and maxillae
    • biramous appendages
    • hard calcium carbonate exoskeleton
  165. 6 features of hexapodas
    • terrestrial, marine, freshwater
    • three well defined segments
    • mandi and maxi
    • 1 pair antennae
    • uniramous
    • wings
  166. three well defined segments of hexapoda
    • head
    • thorax
    • abdomen
  167. a group of organisms that can be studied winthin a site to determine the overall health and functiong of a habitat
    bio-indicator
  168. 6 synapomorphies of insecta
    • 3 pairs of walking legs
    • 3 tagma
    • mouthparts
    • wings for flight
    • exoskeleton
    • antennae
  169. 3 pairs of walking legs of insecta have 3 functions
    • jumping
    • digging
    • swimming
  170. a living fossil
    bristletails
  171. body is long wingless with a pair of antennae
    bristletails
  172. at the end of bristletail abdomen they have two structues
    • cerci (2 of them)
    • central caudal filament
  173. cerci of bristle tails function
    sensory structures
  174. ptera meaning
    wings
  175. 3 reasons why flight is the key to great success of insects
    • escape predators
    • find food
    • disperse new habitats
  176. 4 characteristics of all chordates
    • notochord
    • a dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • post anal tail
    • pharynx with gill slits
  177. long flexible rod of mesoderm found in all chordates
    notochord
  178. ectodermal tissue that forms a spinal cord
    dorsal hollow nerve cord
  179. muscle and skeletal elements that provide propulsive forces
    postanal tail
  180. suspension feeding device in invertibrate
    pharyngeal slits
  181. gas exchange in aquatic vertebrates
    pharyngeal slits
  182. jaws and hearing in other vertebrates in chordates
    pharyngeal slits
  183. function of notochord
    flexible tissue rod that supports the nerve cord
  184. main structural support for the lowest chordates and is only present in the embryo of high chordates
    notochord
  185. the cartilaginous disks between each of your vertebrate are remnants of
    embryonic notocord
  186. develops into the cNS in chordates
    dorsal hollow nerve cord
  187. function of post anal tail of chordates
    propelling force between many aquatic species
  188. in terrestrial vertebrates the pharyngeal slits developed into these 3
    • ear
    • head
    • neck
  189. in earlier chordates the pharynx was known as
    an opening into gut and it has gill slits
  190. 3 subphyla of chordata
    • urochordata
    • cephalochordata
    • craniata
  191. sea squirts and tunicates are example of
    urochordata
  192. considered to be the first chordates of evolution
    tunicates
  193. those a part of this subphylum lose their nerve cord, notochord, slits, and tail to become stationary filter feeders
    urochordata
  194. urochordata organism retain the structures they normally loose when they become an adult
    larvaceans
  195. lacelet example of
    cephalochordata
  196. marine suspenion feeder that retain characteristics of the chordate body plan as adults
    cephalochordata
  197. these two replace the notochord as the primary support for the body of craniates
    • bony
    • cartilaginous vertebrate
  198. all craniates have a head but not all craniates have a backbone
  199. advantage of having a head in chordates feeding
    active predation
  200. 4 characteristics craniates share
    • skull
    • brain
    • eyes
    • sensory organs
  201. 5 characteristics of hagfish
    • deep sea scavengers
    • partial cranium
    • no vertebrate
    • lack jaws
    • no paired fins
  202. are craniates but not true vertebrates of the class myxinia
    hagfish
  203. tie themselves into a not to rip the flesh off their prey
    hagfish
  204. 3 derived characters of vertebrates
    • vertebrae enclosing spinal cord
    • elaborate skull
    • fin rays
  205. class petromyzintida example
    lamprey
  206. three charactersitics of lampreys
    • jawless
    • basal of all vertebrate
    • ancestral shared characters with hagfish
  207. mouth is toothed and funnel like
    lamprey
  208. non mineralized skeleton
    lamprey
  209. how to jaws develop for gnathostomes
    skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits
  210. 3 charactersitics to gnathostomes
    • enhanced sensory systems
    • mineralized endoskeleton
    • pairs appendages
  211. this class has
    jawed fished
    paired fins
    skeletons made of cartilage
    chondrichthyans
  212. how to sharks and rays help with their buoyancy because they dont have a swim bladder
    oil concentrated in their liver
  213. all of those in this type of class have a bony endoskeleton
    osteichthyans
  214. fishes control their buoyancy by an air sac known as _______ derived from a ______
    • swim bladder
    • lung
  215. ray finned and lobe finned fish belong to what class
    osteichthyans
  216. the skeletal support for their fins is inside their body wall
    what class is this?
    actinopterygii
  217. 2 derived characters of tetrapods
    • four limbs with digit feet
    • ears
  218. tetrapods are gnathastomes with limbs and feet
  219. only class of vertebrates that does not have an amniotic egg
    amphibia
  220. why do amphibians have moist skin
    complements the lungs in gas exchnage
  221. why does amphibian mean two lives
    metamorphosis of an aquatic larve into a terrestrial adult
  222. the three extraembryonic membranes
    • amnion
    • chorion
    • allantois
  223. animals with amniotic eggs belong to what clade
    amniote
  224. reason for amniotic egg
    helps amniotes move away from relying on water for growth and development of their young
  225. 5 reasons for shellof amniotes
    • protection
    • gas exchange
    • embryo moist
    • waste storage
    • food
  226. reptiles have shells that function as
    a waterproof barrier
  227. reptiles live in water however they are born in shells on land
  228. 5 derived characters of mammals
    • mammary glands
    • hair
    • large brain
    • specialized teeth
    • two bones incorporated into the middle ear
  229. echidnas and platypus are examples of
    monotremes
  230. small group of egg laying mammals
    monotremes
  231. are the only mammals that lay eggs
    monotremes
  232. opossums, kangaroos, and koalas are example of
    marsupials
  233. marsupials completes its embryonic development while nuring in a materal pounch called
    marsupium
  234. young eutherians complete their embryonic development within a
    uterus joined to the mother by the placenta
  235. placenta serves as a source of these 3
    • food
    • water
    • oxygen
  236. eutherians have a longer period of pregnancy

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