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- Varied shapes = no cell wall
- Plasma membrane sterols
- Fried egg colony
- Smallest free living organism (.1-.3 um)
Size of mycoplasmas
.1-.3 um (smallest living)
Mycoplasma colony morphology
Cell wall in Mycoplasma is:
gram stain of mycoplasma:
Does not gram stain
There is Peptidoglycan in Mycoplasmas (T/F)
Mycoplasmas produce sterols (True/False)
What must be supplied in the medium to grow mycoplasmas?
Sterols are composed of:
- 4 fused rings
- Hydrocarbon chain branches off of C17
- Polar hydroxyl group at C3
- Double bond between C5 and 6
Two componenets of "fried egg colony morphology"
- Central (imbeded) zone
- Periphreal (superficial) zone
Mycoplasma are only enclosed in:
A cell membrane, there is no cell wall
Medically important Mycoplasmataceae
Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma
Number of species in Ureaplamsa
number of mycoplasma species
Which mycoplasma species are found only in the respiratory tract?
Which mycoplasma are found in both respiratory and urogenital tracts?
M. Hominis, M. Genitalium, U. Urealyticum
Mycoplasma Virulence factors include:
Terminal protein attachment factor allows it to attach to lung epithelial cells. This inhibits cilia over several weeks time.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes:
- secondary complications (neurologic, pericarditis, haemolytic anemia, arthritis and mucocutaneous lesions)
Mucoplasma genitalium causes:
Nongonococcal Urethritis, Pelvic Inflmmatory Disease
Mycoplasma Hominis causes:
pyelonephritis, postpartum fever, systemic infections in immunocomprimised patients
Ureaplasma urealyticum causes:
NGU, Pyelonephritis, spontaneous abortion and premature birth (chorioamnionitis), prostasis
Mycoplasma pneumonia produces a unique virulence factor called:
Vacuolating cytotoxin produces:
Vacuoles in the mammalian cell are formed. Not known how this is caused.
Mycoplasma general virulence factors
Tight binding to cells.
Mycoplasma have pili (T/F)
False, there are receptors but there are no pili
Mycoplasma recognizes and binds to Mammalian cell using:
Mycoplasma Pneumonia causes what types of pneumonia?
Walking pneumonia ot primary atypical pneumoniae
Atypical refers to:
asiduous or not abrupt OR not tratable with Penicillin
Pneumoniae epidemics occur how oftern?
Every 4-8 years
Why is Mycoplasma resistant to Penicillin?
Mycoplasma do not have a cell wall and penicillin disrupts the cell wall.
Among adults M. pneumoniae accounts for what percent of community aquired pneumoniae?
How many Pneumonia cases in the U.S. each year?
Number of pneumonia related hospitilization in the U.S annually?
highest incidence of M. pneumoniae is in what population?
3-4 year olds
Hospitilization die to M. pneumoniae is high in what group
Patients under 5 years old
Symptoms of pneumonia
- Cough (often spasms)
- Sore Throat
- Fever with rash
- Sometimes chest discomfort
Erythemia Multiforme is called:
Erythemia Multiforme can be associated with:
- M. pneumoniae
- herpes infections
- streptococcal infection
- And chemical and medicine related reactions
Cold agglutinin titer is most indicative at what time period?
2-8 weeks after infection, rapidly decolines after 8 weeks and is back to normal
Serum antibody (complement fixation test) is most responsive during what period?
2-3 and 7-8 weeks, slowly declines thereafter (to week 52)
M. peumoniae is most common amongst which two groups?
School age choldren and young adults
Early symptoms of M. pneumoniae are:
Malaise, fever and sore throat
Cough is or is not predominant in M. pneumoniae cases?
Progressed disease of M. pneumoniae are:
Nasal symptoms, earache and chest pain
Symptoms of M. pneumoniae
Headache, Fever, Sore Throat, Cough
Signs of M. pneumoniae
Sputum, Dullness, Rales
Symptoms or signs present first in M. pneumoniae infection?
Symptoms at about 0-1 weeks
Sigsn of M. pneumoniae present at what period?
1-2 weeks and last only just past 2 weeks.
Diagnosis of M. pneumoniae is performed by:
- Antibody detection
- PCR on blood
The most accurate test for diagnosing M. pneumoniae is:
Rate of Pelvic inflammatory Disease in 15-44 year old women is changing how?
Declining since 2000 from around 60-70 thousnad to about 30-40 thousand in U.S (acute). Acute is declining more than chronic, which has stayed around 15 thousand.
Projected cost of plevic inflammatory disease increased from when to when?
1990 to 2000
The most useful assays types for detecting M. pneumoniae are:
- Molecular diagnosis ( PCR)
- Enzyme Assays (detect p1 adhesin)
Which type of diagnositic test is not useful for mycoplasmas?
Microscopy because there is no cell wall so staining is difficult
Poor tests for Mycoplasma are:
- Culture (too slow)
- Complement fixation (poor sensitivity)
- Cold Agglutinin (poor specificty)-common but not recommended.
Anitbiotic treatment of Mycoplasma can be carried out with:
Tetracycline and Erythromycin
Mycoplasma cannot be treated with what antibiotic?
Chronif Fatigue Syndrome is associated with:
Mycoplasma may cause what debilitating disease that has previously been without cause?
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
L-forms are also called
- L-phase bacteria
- L-phase variants
- cell wall deficient (CWD) bacteria
The two types of L-forms are:
Unstable and Stable
Unstable L-forms include:
shperoblasts that can divide and revert to origional morphology
Stable L-forms include:
those unable to revert to origional bacteria
Characteristics of L-forms:
- Wall-deficient bacterial variant
- Can only produce part of cell wall
- =osmotically fragile
- No sterols in cell membrane
- Reproduction stopped by penicillin
L-forms attach to do not attach to Mammalian cells?
L-form cell walls are electron dense (T/F)
L-form looks like:
bacterial area in blood that apears to have a transparrent butterfly wing with black dots clustered.
Potential cause of Sarcoidosis
chronic formation of nodules in the lungs, liver and lynph glads and salivary glands.