Mycology

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Miskozi
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20879
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Mycology
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2010-05-27 10:18:50
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Questions from Mycology course notes at UWO
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  1. What are the two types of flagellae?
    • Whiplash
    • Tinsel
  2. What makes the two types of flagella different?
    Whiplash is smooth. Tinsel is covered in fine “hairs” called mastigonemes.
  3. What are mastigonemes?
    The fine “hairs” that cover tinsel flagellae.
  4. What are hyphae and mycelium?
    Hyphae is filamentous fungal growth, while mycelium is the term used to describe a mass of hyphae growing together.
  5. What is a mass of hyphae growing together normally called?
    Mycelium
  6. What is filamentous fungal growth normally called?
    Hyphae
  7. What does the term dimorphic mean when used to describe fungi?
    The fungi can exist in a hyphal/filamentous form, or as a yeast.
  8. Are fungi autotrophs or heterotrophs? Why?
    Heterotrophs, because they must absorb nutrients from the environment.
  9. Name six materials that fungi are capable of breaking down that makes them great decomposers.
    • Cellulose (plants)
    • Keratin (hair, nails)
    • Lignin (wood)
    • Suberin (cork)
    • Chitin (fungi cell walls, insect exoskeleton)
    • Melanin (black pigments)
  10. How do fungi digest their food?
    They excrete enzymes, allow their food to break down, and absorb the components.
  11. What does the term saprobe mean?
    A saprobe is a fungi that grows on non-living substrate (it is not parasitic).
  12. Fungi that grow on non-living substrate are often referred to as ____________.
    Saprobic
  13. What is an endophyte?
    A fungi that lives within a plant seemingly without effect to the plant.
  14. A fungi that lives within a plant without seeming to effect the plant is referred to as a _____________.
    Endophyte
  15. In general, fungi can tolerate a wide range of conditions. Name pH, temperature, and water availability tolerances.
    • pH 1 – pH 9
    • -5 to -60 degC
    • Tolerate water availability as low as 0.65 (plants can’t survive with less than 0.98)
  16. What is a prototroph?
    A fungi that has the ability to synthesize all of its amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, and other cellular constituents from inorganic nutrients.
  17. A fungi that has the ability to synthesize all of its amino acids, nucleic acids, vitamins, and other cellular constituents from inorganic nutrients is often referred to as a/an ____________.
    Prototroph
  18. What is an auxotroph?
    A fungi incapable of synthesizing some particular organic compound required for its growth.
  19. A fungi incapable of synthesizing an organic compound required for its growth is often referred to as a/an __________.
    Auxotroph
  20. Hyphae that have no cross walls are referred to as ________.
    Aseptate
  21. Hyphae that have cross walls are referred to as _________.
    Septate
  22. What is the difference between septate and aseptate?
    Septate fungi have cross walls dividing their hyphae. Aseptate fungi do not.
  23. What is the difference in the physical traits of hyphae between septate and aseptate fungi?
    • Aseptate fungi generally have wide, fast growing, and easily damaged hyphae.
    • Septate fungi generally have narrower fungi that are not as easily damaged.
  24. What does the term coenocytes refer to?
    A coenocytes is an aseptate fungi with nuclei spread throughout the hyphae.
  25. What is the difference between rhizoids and rhizomorphs?
    • Rhizoids are very narrow, branched, usually enucleate, assimilative filaments found in microscopic thalli of Chytridiomycota. Root-like in that they absorb water and provide structural stability for the fungi.
    • Rhizomorphs are a root-like, macroscopic aggregation of hyphae with a cortex of dark cells and a central core of long, unpigmented cells; function in the translocation of food.
  26. What are haustoria?
    The hyphal tip of a parasitic fungus that penetrates the host plant tissue but stays outside of the cells.
  27. What are sclerotia?
    Sclerotia are a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves, usually used as a means of surviving overwinter or other environmental extremes.
  28. How do the two main types of fungi differ?
    C needs to live in water while most E does not. C is typically unicellular, E is typically multicellular. C tends to be motile, E is typically non-motile (with the exception of Chytridiomycota). C is diploid somatic, E is haploid somatic. C has walls made of cellulose while E has walls of chitin. C stores energy in the form of plant starches. E stores energy in the form of glycogen.
  29. What types of fungus are motile?
    Chromista (hyphotriomycota and oomycota) and chytrids
  30. Why did early mycologists think that slime molds were fungi?
    Slime molds produce fruiting bodies similar to fungal fruiting bodies.
  31. What are the four phyla of slime moulds?
    • Myxostelida
    • Dictyostelida
    • Labyrinthulida
    • Plasmodiophorida
  32. Name 5 important characteristics of oomycota.
    • - many live in water or soil
    • - include important pathogens
    • - have diploid hyphae
    • - oogamous reproduction (separate antheridia and oogonia)
    • - B-glucan + cellulose cell walls
  33. What is the first known fungicide? What was the active ingredient?
    The Bordeaux mixture. Copper.
  34. Most fungi are ___trophs but some are ____trophs.
    prototrophs; auxotrophs
  35. Cell walls differ depending on the type of fungus. Eumycota walls consist of _____, chromista walls consist of ____, and yeast walls consist of _______.
    Chitin; cellulose; B-glucans
  36. What stage of the eumycota reproductive cycle is often adapted for overwintering/survival?
    Diploid spore stage
  37. Eumycota hyphae undergo mitosis to produce a vast number of ________ spores.
    asexual
  38. What part of the chromista reproductive life cycle is often adapted for overwintering and survival?
    Diploid spore stage
  39. The asexual stage of fungi is referred to as _____.
    anamorph
  40. The sexual stages of fungi are referred to as _____.
    teleomorph
  41. What does the term teleomorph refer to?
    Refers to the sexual stage of a fungus.
  42. What does the term anamorph refer to?
    Refers to the asexual stage of a fungus.
  43. Anamorph + teleomorph = ______.
    Holomorph
  44. Fungi where only the anamorph stage is known are referred to as __________. Why?
    Deuteromycetes. Means fungi imperfecti. They're hard to classify into established taxonomic groups without knowing the teleomorph stage.
  45. Known anamorphs and teleomorphs are often mistaken as ________ species.
    Different
  46. What does the term holomorph refer to?
    A single species of fungi referring to both its sexual and asexual stages.
  47. Air we breath typically contains _______ spores/m3.
    10,000
  48. During the sexual stage, fungi can be _______, or _______.
    Homothallic; heterothallic (order doesnt matter)
  49. What does the term homothallic refer to?
    Sexual reproduction can begin on a single strain.
  50. What does the term heterothallic refer to?
    Two genetically different fungi are required for sexual reproduction.
  51. What are heterokaryons?
    Fungi that contain a mixtute of genetically different nuclei.
  52. How do heterokaryons and dikaryons form?
    After plasmogamy if there is a long gap before karyogamy.
  53. What are dikaryons?
    Each cell contains 2 nuclei, one of each genetic type. Formed after fusion of two sex types through plasmogamy.
  54. What are homokaryons?
    Cells eith nuclei all of the same type.
  55. In heterothallic strains, _______ determine sexual compatibility.
    Mating-types
  56. What are gametangia?
    An organ or cell in which gametes are produced.
  57. What does the term antheridia refer to?
    Haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes.
  58. What does the term oogonia refer to?
    Haploid structure or organ producing and containing female gametes.
  59. Does sexual reproduction during teleomorphic stages require gametangia?
    In some species, yes, but other species have unspecialized cells that will fuse together to begin sexual reproduction.
  60. Antheridia + oogonia = ______
    Gametangia
  61. What are fungal gametangia more specifically referred to as?
    • F - oogonia
    • M - antheridia
  62. What is plasmogamy?
    Cell fusion between haploids via conjunction, anastomosis of hyphae, or fusion of gametangia.
  63. What is karyogamy?
    Nuclear fusion to make a diploid.
  64. What is meiosis as it pertains to fungi?
    The formation of 4 (usually) haploid nuclei (may later form 8 or 16 nuclei by mitosis.
  65. What is spore formation?
    The packaging of nuclei into spores.
  66. What four things are involved in the sexual reproduction of teleomorphic fungi?
    • Plasmogamy
    • Karyogamy
    • Meiosis
    • Spore formation
  67. What is a conjunction as it pertains to plasmogamy?
    The formation of spores at the conjunction of two fungal hyphae of a fungus lacking cell walls.
  68. What is the anastomosis of hyphae?
    In some fungi, two different haploid mating types - if compatible - merge wihout the occurence of karyogamy leading to a "single" binucleate organism.
  69. Heterokaryon compatibility genes determine the ability of different homokaryotic hyphae to _______ and form heterokaryon.
    Anastomose
  70. Slime moulds of the phylum Myxostelida are often referred to as __________.
    True slime moulds
  71. Slime moulds of the phylum Dictyostelida are often referred to as __________.
    Cellular slime mould
  72. Slime moulds of the phylum labyrinthulida are often referred to as ________.
    Net slime moulds
  73. Slime moulds of the phylum plasmodiophorida are often referred to as _________.
    Endoparasitic slime moulds
  74. Endoparasitic slime moulds belong in the phylum __________.
    Plasmodiophorida
  75. Net slime moulds belong in the phylum ________.
    Labyrinthulida
  76. Cellular slime moulds belong in the phylum _________.
    Dictyostelida
  77. True slime moulds belong in the phylum _________.
    Myxostelida
  78. The plasmodium of slime moulds ingests _____, _______, and __________.
    Bacteria, fungal spores, and maybe other smaller protozoa.
  79. Slime moulds cause ______ damage.
    Little
  80. Why are slime moulds ideal tools for scientists studying mitosis?
    The millions of nuclei in a single plasmodium all divide at the same time.
  81. If the plasmodium begins to dry out too quickly or is starved, it forms a survival structure called a ________.
    Sclerotium
  82. What are sporangia?
    A structure developing and containing spores.
  83. What are plasmodia?
    The unicellular body of a multinucleate true slime mould.
  84. How fast can slime moulds move?
    1 mm per hour
  85. Name some characteristics of Myxostelida.
    • Some species form stalked sporangia in which meiosis occurs, giving amoeboid or biflagellate haploid spores.
    • They fuse in pairs to reestablish diploid plasmodia.
    • Amoeboid, diploid plasmodia of these organisms found in soil, ingesting bacteria.
    • Form a slimy mass.
  86. Name some characteristics of Dictyostelida.
    • Separate amoeba attract together (due to cAMP, which they release).
    • Form large pseudoplasmodial 'slug' (an aggregate of many amoeba rather than a true plasmodium).
    • The 'slug' elongates vertically and releases new amoeba.
  87. How do the Dictyostelida find each other to aggregate?
    Each amoeba leaves a trail of cAMP. Other amoeba cross the trail, follow it and strengthen it. More amoeba are attracted by the stronger concentration till all of the amoeba gather themselves into a pseudoplasmodium.
  88. Name some characteristics of Labyrinthulida.
    • They form large networks or mesh of wall-less filaments.
    • L. zostera has caused huge losses to the ecologically important eelgrass habitats on salt marshes.
  89. What is a zoospore?
    Motile asexual spores that use flagellum for locomotion.
  90. What are some characteristics of Plasmodiophoroda?
    They are obligate parasites, such as club root (cabbage) and powdery scab (potato).
  91. What are the fungus-like Chromista phylum we need to remember?
    • Hyphochytriomycota
    • Oomycota
  92. Name some characteristics of Hyphochytriomycota.
    • Single anterior tinsel flagellum.
    • Mostly live in water or soil.
    • Single cell or hyphae, sometimes develop rhizoids.
    • No known sexual stages.
  93. Describe some characteristics of the oomycota.
    • Two flagellum, one whiplash and one tinsel.
    • Many live in water or soil.
    • Include some important pathogens.
    • Have diploid hyphae (most other fungi have haploid hyphae).
    • Oogamous reproduction - separate antheridia and oogonia.
    • B-glucan and cellulose cell walls.
  94. Which phylum of the Eumycota is the exception to the non-motile rule?
    Chytridiomycota
  95. Where does meiosis occur among Oomycota?
    In the antheridia and oogonia.
  96. When is the diploid state restored in the oomycota antheridia and oogonia?
    When the antheridia and the oogonia fuse.
  97. Where would you expect to find zoospores in the oomycota?
    In sporangia.
  98. What phylum does the late potato blight belong in?
    Oomycota
  99. What consequence is there for a fungus to be heterothallic if there is only one mating type in some given area?
    No sexual reproduction will be possible in those areas and will hinder adaptation.
  100. Which of the Chromistan fungi are only known as anamorphs?
    Hyphochytriomycota
  101. Name some important economic species of the oomycetes?
    • Blue mould of tobacco
    • Late blight of potato
    • Downy mildew of grape
    • White fust of crucifers
    • Damping off disease
    • Water mould on fish
  102. What phylum does downy mildew of grape belong in?
    Oomycota
  103. What phylum does blue mould of tobacco belong in?
    Oomycota
  104. Which fungal parasite brought about the creation of the first fungicide?
    Downy mildew of grapes
  105. What is chemotaxis?
    Is the phenomenon in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment.
  106. Which three phylum contain motile fungi?
    • Hyphochytriomycota
    • Oomycota
    • Chytridiomycota
  107. Name some important ways in which the three phylum of motile fungi differ.
    • Hyphochytriomycota are the only group in which only anamorphs are known, otherwise they are similar to Oomycota.
    • Oomycota and Hypho have B-glucan and cellulose cell walls rather than the chitin found in Chytridiomycota.
    • Chytridio store energy in the form of glycogen while the other two are more plant-like in energy storage.
  108. Name all of the Eumycotan fungi.
    • Chytridiomycota
    • Zygomycota
    • Glomeromycota
    • Dikaryomycota
  109. Which Eumycotan phylum has almost no septae?
    Zygomycota
  110. Which Eumycotan phylum mostly have coenocytic hyphae?
    Zygomycota because they have no septae.
  111. Which Eumycotan fungi has flagellae? What kind of flagellae?
    • Chytridiomycota
    • Have one posterior whiplash
  112. Of the three motile fungi phylum, describe the differences in flagellum between them.
    • Hyphochytriomycota - single, anterior tinsel
    • Oomycota - 1 whiplash, 1 tinsel
    • Chytridiomycota - single, posterior whiplash
  113. When it comes to ploidy, how do Chromista and Eumycota differ? What are the exceptions? Why?
    • Chromista have a long diploid and short haploid stage. Hyphochytriomycota are the exception because they are currently only known as anamorphs.
    • Eumycota are mainly haploid and have a short dipoid stage. Chytridiomycota are the exception because they are variable.
  114. Which phylum do the earliest fungal fossils belong to?
    Chytridiomycota
  115. Which phylum contains a fungus species that is responsible for killing frogs all over the world?
    Chytridiomycota
  116. What is the difference between eucarpic and holocarpic?
    • Eucarpic - separate rhizoids and reproductive parts
    • Holocarpic - only have reproductive parts
  117. What phylum does Synchytrium belong in?
    Chytridiomycota
  118. What is Synchytrium commonly referreed to as?
    Wart disease of potatoes
  119. What are the two subphylum of the Dikaryomycota?
    • Ascomycota
    • Basidiomycota
  120. Which Eumycotan phylum forms endomycorrhizae?
    Glomeromycota
  121. Which Eumycotan phylum are coenocytic?
    • Zygomycota
    • Glomeromycota
  122. Which Eumycotan phylum has clear septate hyphae?
    Dikaryomycota
  123. Potato wart disease belongs in which phylum?
    Chytridiomycota
  124. How would you describe the wall of a zygospore?
    Thick
  125. What two classes of Zygomycota do we need to know?
    • Zygomycetes
    • Trichomycetes
  126. What four orders of Zygomycetes do we need to be familiar with?
    • Mucorales
    • Entomophthorales
    • Kickxellales
    • Glomales
  127. Which order of the Zygomycetes contains the mycorrhizae?
    Glomales, which was recently bumped up to its own phylum.
  128. Which class of the Zygomycetes is saprobic?
    Mucorales
  129. What are Mucorales?
    A class of related saprobic species of the order Zygomycetes belonging to the phylum Zygomycota.
  130. What are Glomales?
    A class of related mycorrhizae of the order Zygomycetes belonging to the phylum Zygomycota.
  131. What is Rhizopus stolonifer?
    A species of bread mould belonging to the Mucorales class, in the Zygomycete order, of the phylum Zygomycota.
  132. What is a columella?
    It is the hyphal tip of a sporangiophore that is attached to the sporangia in the zygomycota.
  133. What are some important things to remember about Glomales?
    • They've been upgraded to their own phylum called Glomeromycota.
    • They don't grow in culture.
    • They are mycorrhizae.
    • No sexual stages are known.
  134. How can you identify Glomeromycota in a microscope?
    Look for lipid filled vesicles, tree like structures in plant cells, and asexual spores big enough to see with the naked eye (2mm).
  135. Describe the positioning of gametangia in allomyces.
    The smaller male gametangia grows atop the larger female gametangia during the haploid stage.
  136. How are Dikaryomycota different from Zygomycota?
    D have thinner hyphae with thicker walls, divided into compartments by septae which have pores. D are tougher and more easily able to thrive in drier situations. D are also more capable of utilizing more complex materials (chitin, kereatin, lignin, cellulose). Hyphae can fuse to form long-lasting dikaryons before the two nuclei fuse.
  137. What are the four kinds of ascoma?
    • Apothecia (open cup)
    • Perithecia (cup with narrow opening)
    • Pseudothecia (cup with narrow opening)
    • Cleistothecia (closed sphere)
  138. Name the classes of Ascomycotina that we should know. What are some key differences?
    • Ascomycetes (filamentous species, including most lichens)
    • Saccharomycetes (unicellular yeast species, contains most known yeast species)
    • Deuteromycetes (no known sexual stage)
  139. Name two important plant crop diseases caused by Ascomycotina.
    • Ergot of rye (st. anthony’s fire)
    • Peach leaf curl
  140. Which phylum does peach leaf curl belong in?
    Dikaryomycota (Ascomycota)
  141. Which phylum does ergot of rye belong in?
    Dikaryomycota (Ascomycota)
  142. Which group can lay claim to the source of LSD?
    Ascomycota. Ergot of rye contains it.
  143. What are the four main types of asci? Briefly describe how they differ.
    • Unitunicate – operulate (tube shaped, lid-like opening)
    • Unitunicate – inoperulate (tube shaped, sphincter-like opening)
    • Bitunicate (thin outer wall, thick inner wall, outer wall dissolves, asci fills up with pressure and shoots out contents in explosive manner, often called “jack-in-the-box”)
    • Prototunicate (no forceful ejection of spores, spherical in shape)
  144. What are conidia?
    Asexual spores formed by ascomycetes that are produced in vast numbers by mitotic division.
  145. Ascomycete anamorphs can be classified based on what? Into what groups?
    • Based on the features of the conidia.
    • Hyphomycetes – conidiophores never enclosed
    • Coelomycetes – conidiophores enclosed in a covering
  146. Coelomycetes have their conidiophores covered by __________ if they are acervulus, or by _________ if they are pycnidium.
    Host cells; fungal hyphae in a flask shape
  147. How do deuteromycetes reproduce?
    By using conidia (asexual spores of ascomycetes).
  148. Where are condia formed?
    Conidiogenous cells.
  149. What are the two types of conidia formation? How do they differ? What prefixes can further delineate between different types of conidia formation?
    • Thallic (cell separated by septa, thickens, swells and finally separates)
    • Blastic (swelling and thickening happen first and then is cut off by septa)
    • Holo or entero prefixes can be used
    • Holo (when wall of conidium is continuous with cell that produced it)
    • Entero (when only inner walls of conidium bearing cells is continuous with it)
  150. What are the three classes of basidiomycota that we should know? What differentiates them?
    • Holobasidiomycetes (typical mushrooms with fleshy, woody, or corky fruiting bodies, basidia have no septae)
    • Phragmobasidiomycetes (gelatinous fruiting bodies – ear and jelly fungi, basidia subdivided into 4 compartments)
    • Teliomycetes (no separate fruiting body – rust and smut plant pathogens, basidia subdivided into 4 compartments from resting spore called teliospore)
  151. What are the classes of holobasidiomycetes that we should know? What differentiates them?
    • Hymenomycetes (actively shoot spores)
    • Gasteromycetes (doesn’t actively shoot spores)
  152. Name some important orders of hymenomycetes. What differentiates them?
    • Aphyllophorales (no gills, fruiting bodies often fairly persistent)
    • Agaricales (typical mushrooms and toadstools, have gills and short-lived fruiting body, most are saprobes or mycorrhizal, a few are parasitic)
  153. Name some important examples of Aphyllophorales.
    • Bracket fungi
    • Dry rot fungi
    • Tooth fungi
    • Crust fungi
    • Club and coral fungi
  154. What is another word for the cap of a mushroom?
    Pileus
  155. What is another word for the stem of a mushroom?
    Stipe
  156. What classification does “destroying angel” fall under?
    It’s an Agaricales order, of the Hymenomycetes class, of the Basidiomycota subphylum, of the Dikaryomycota phylum.
  157. Why is “destroying angel” given its name?
    It’s extremely poisonous. It contains two types of toxins, phalloidin and amanitin. Phalloidin the human body can detox but not amanitin. Amanitin blocks protein synthesis.
  158. What is the carnivorous fungus?
    The oyster mushroom.
  159. What is the species name of the cultivated mushroom (the one we eat at grocery stores most often)?
    Agaricus bisporus
  160. What is a volva on a mushroom?
    A volva is a the rupturing of a thing membrane produced mostly by poisonous mushrooms over the entire surface of the mushroom. The vovla is localized around the stipe and ring.
  161. Name some important examples of Gasteromycetes.
    • Sclerodermatales – earthball
    • Lycoperdales – puffballs, earthstars
    • Nidulariales – bird’s nest fungi
    • Phallales – stinkhorn
  162. What is the mass that contains spores in a puffball called?
    Gleba
  163. What is a gleba?
    The main body of a puffball containing all of the spores.
  164. What is the approximate size of most yeast?
    10 mμ in diameter
  165. What should you know about yeast in regards to oxygen availability?
    If oxygen is present, yeast utilizes respiration. Otherwise, yeast utilizes fermentation.
  166. Are yeast facultative anaerobic organisms or obligate anaerobic organisms? Why?
    Yeast are facultative anaerobic organisms because they do not die in the presence of oxygen, they simply switch to respiration.
  167. What are some conditions favoring growth of yeast?
    Yeasts can tolerate a wide temperature range, and require air, sugar, water and acidic food.
  168. Do yeast produce hyphae?
    Some yeasts do, yes.
  169. What are Saccharomyces cerevisiae known for?
    S. cerevisiae are a yeast that humans use to ferment bread, beer, wine, and alcohol. They’re also extremely useful tools in genetics.
  170. What is the species of yeast that humans use to ferment bread, beer, wine, and alcohol?
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  171. Do yeasts associate with humans outside of the kitchen?
    Yes. Some yeast are normal flora of the human oral cavity, skin, GI tracts, etc.
  172. What is torula yeast for?
    • For fish culture.
    • Livestock feeding
    • Food supplement
  173. What is brewer’s yeast for?
    It’s a good source of vitamins.
  174. What are some harmful associations of yeast?
    Yeast can cause food to spoil. Candida albicans can also cause disease in certain situations (in immune-compromised individuals).
  175. What phylum are yeasts found in?
    • Zygomycota
    • Dikaryomycota (including ascomycetes and basidiomycetes)
  176. What zygomycotan species of yeast should we be aware of?
    Mucor
  177. Name some important characteristics of Mucor yeast.
    Some Mucor species show dimorphic growth. They can also grow at temperatures above 37degC, thereby potentially acting as a human pathogen.
  178. Which phylum is home to most of the known yeasts?
    Ascomycetes
  179. Which phylum does Saccharomyces cerevisiae belong in?
    Ascomycetes

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