Muscle Test

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Marytaylor
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208792
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Muscle Test
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2013-03-26 20:54:37
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Muscles
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Muscles
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  1. Four basic tissues of the body
    • epithelial tissue
    • connective tissue
    • nervous tissue
    • muscle
  2. Name the 3 types of Muscles
    • Skeletal – the muscle we eat and treat
    • Cardiac – only in the heart 
    • Smooth – composing system of no control
  3. __________ gives the orders, and the ___________ carries them out
    • nervous system
    • muscular system
  4. refers to muscle generally
    myo
  5. specifically refers to muscle cells
    sarco
  6. Study of muscles
    Myology
  7. Inflammation of muscle tissue
    myositis
  8. Cytoplasm of a muscle cell at the cellular level
    Sarcoplasm
  9. The cell shrinks
    Atrophy
  10. Increase in size due to an increase in the size of the cell.
    Hypertrophy
  11. Increase due to an increase in the number of cells
    Hyperplasia
  12. Cells change shape
    Metaplasia
  13. Type of muscle that usually comes to mind when we hear the word muscle
    Skeletal
  14. Skeletal muscle is often referred to as
    voluntary striated muscle
  15. Well-defined organs composed of groups of skeletal muscle cells surrounded by a layer of fibrous connective tissue
    Muscles
  16. Most muscles attach to bones at both ends by tough, fibrous connective tissue bands called
    tendons
  17. Broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue attach muscles to bones or to other muscles
    Aponeuroses
  18. The prominent aponeurosis that runs lengthwise  between the muscles on the animal’s ventral midline. It connects muscle to muscle
    linea alba (white line)
  19. Muscle‘s attachment sites that is generally more stable than the other is called the _____ of the muscle.
    origin
  20. The muscles attachment site that undergoes most of the movement when a muscle contracts is called the ________ of the muscle and is more distal on the appendage.
    insertion
  21. Used to describe a muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desire movement.
    Example:
    • Prime Mover (agonist)
    • long head of the triceps and deep head of the triceps
  22. a muscle or muscle group that directly opposes the action of a prime mover.
    Example
    • Antagonist
    • Biceps flexes the elbow and the Triceps extends the elbow
  23. Muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action.
    Example:
    • Synergist 
    • Flexor muscle deep digital flexes digits of front limb and superficial digital flexor muscles aids in the movement
  24. Muscle that stabilizes joints to allow other movements to take place.
    Example
    • Fixator
    • muscle that flex the digits also can flex the carpus
  25. 6 Muscle Naming
    • Action
    • Shape
    • Location
    • Direction of fibers
    • Number of heads or divisions
    • Attachment sites
  26. Action
    A portion of the name is often related to its functions. Muscles that flex a joint are often called flexor muscles.
  27. Shape:
    Reflects its distinctive shape such as the deltoid muscle. The term means triangular shaped and it is located in the shoulder region
  28. Location:
    Example:
    • Its physical location in the body.
    • biceps brachii muscle is located in the brachial region
  29. Direction of fibers
    The term rectus means straight. The rectus abdominis muscle are two strap like muscles on either side of the linea alba.
  30. Number of heads or divisions:
    Example:
    • The number of heads refers to the number of attachment sites that a muscle has to its origin.
    • bicep brachii muscle has 2heads, triceps brachii muscle has 3 heads.
  31. Attachment sites 
    Example
    • Origin and insertion sites are used to name muscles.
    • sternocephalicus– origin is sternum insertion is back of the head (cephal)
  32. Occur in the superficial fascia between the skin and the deep fascia covering the skeletal muscles. These muscles attach to the skin and are responsible for movement of the skin.
    These muscles are thin and just serve to _____________
    • Cutaneous muscles 
    • twitch the skin
  33. Function of the abdominal muscles is to:
    • support the abdominal organs.
    • help flex (arch) the back
    • assist in various functions of straining
    • expulsion of feces (defecation)
    • expulsion of urine (urination)
    • expulsion of the newborn (parturition)
    • process of vomiting and regurgitation
  34. Arrangement of Abdominal Muscles form the outside in:
    • A. external abdominal oblique muscle
    • B. internal abdominal oblique muscle
    • C. transversus abdominis muscle
    • D. rectus abdominis muscle
  35. Fibers run in a caudo-ventral oblique direction
    External Abdominal Muscle
  36. Fibers run in a cranio-ventral oblique direction
    Internal Abdominal Muscle
  37. Form the floor of the muscular abdominal wall. It consist of two strap-like muscles on either side of the linea alba that run from the ribs and sternum back to the brim of the pubis.
    Rectus Abdominis Muscle
  38. Deepest of the abdominal muscles as its fibers run directly downward in a ventral direction to insert on the linea alba
    Transversus Abdominis
  39. The 8 extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
    are:
    • 1. Latissimus dorsi muscle
    • 2. Pectoral muscle
    • 3. Deltoids
    • 4. Bracheocephalicus
    • 5. Omotransversarius
    • 6. Trapezius
    • 7. Rhomboideus
    • 8. Serratus ventralis
  40. Latissimus dorsi Muscle – a broad triangular muscle
    Origin:
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: 7-8 thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae
    • Insertion: humerus
    • Action: Draws limb caudally; Flexes shoulder joint
  41. 4 Pectoral Muscles – involved that extend from the sternum to the humerus and act as adductors of the front leg, helping to keep the legs under the animals.
    • a. Descending superficial pectoralis
    • b. Transverse superficial pectoralis
    • c. Deep pectoral
    • d. Xiphihumeralis
  42. Pectoral Muscle 
    Origin:
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: sternum 
    • Insertion: humerus 
    • Action: adductors of the front leg
  43. 2 heads of Deltoids
    Spinodeltoid and Acromiodeltoid or deltoid muscle (acromial portion and spinous portion) – are triangular shaped and extends from the lateral portion of the scapula down to the humerus. These muscles abduct and flexes the shoulder joint.
  44. Brachiocephalicus – this muscle has two heads:
    Origin:
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • a. cleidocephalicus – skull (origin) to clavicle tendon (insertion)
    • b. cleidobrachialis – clavicle tendon (origin) to humerus (insertion)
    • Action is to pull the limb forward and extend the shoulder
  45. Omotransversarius 
    Origin:
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: wing of atlas
    • Insertion: spine and scapula
    • Action: advance the limb
  46. Which extrinsic thoracic muscle is not present in the horse
    Omotransversarius
  47. Trapezius – a very thin triangular muscle
    Heads:
    Origin: 
    Insertion:
    Action
    • Heads: Cervical and Thoracic part
    • Origin: Cervical = atlas Thoracic = thorax.
    • Insertion: Spine of scapula
    • Action: Elevates and abduct the forelimb
  48. Rhomboideus – holds the dorsal border of the scapula close to the body. This muscle has three heads with a common insertion.
    Origin:
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • a. Rhomboideus capitis – origin occipital bone
    • b. Rhomboideus cervicis – origin spinous process of cervical vertebrae
    • c. Rhomboideus thoracis – origin spinous process of thoracic vertebrae
    • Insertion: scapula
    • Action: elevate forelimb
  49. Serratus ventralis – this muscle acts like a sling to support the body between the forelegs. This muscle has two heads.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: scapula
    • Action: support the trunk
  50. The most powerful of the chewing muscles in the cheek area?
    Masseter muscle
  51. Two of the main muscles that extend the head and neck are the
    splenius and trapezius
  52. Muscle that extends the head and neck and also pulls the front leg forward is the
    brachiocephalic muscle
  53. The sternocephalic muscle is a smaller, straplike muscle that extends from the sternum to the base of the skull and acts to
    flex the head and neck
  54. Masseter muscle – This muscle makes up the cheek region of the cat and consists of three layers whose layers run in three different directions.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: zygomatic arch
    • Insertion: lateral side of mandible
    • Action: elevate mandible when chewing
  55. Temporalis muscle - This muscle is the largest muscle on the head and is found on the lateral and dorsal aspects of the skull.
    Origin: 
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: parietal bone, temporal, frontal and occipital.
    • Insertion: coronoid process of mandible
    • Action: elevate mandible for chewing and moves the mandible laterally
  56. Sternocephalicus - this muscle has two heads & the major importance of this muscle is that it forms along with the brachiocephalicus and borders the jugular groove.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: sternum
    • Insertion: occipital bone
    • Action: flex and draws the head and the neck to the side
  57. Platysma – the major cutaneous muscle of the neck and head.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: tissue on the spinous process of the cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion: fibers around the lips
    • Action: to draw the commissures of the lips caudally.
  58. Contracting of the platysma at the point of euthanasia is called
    Sardonic Grin
  59. What muscle is important for the horse to be able to quiver to get fly’s off neck.
    Platysma
  60. Deltoids – 
    2 Heads: 
    Origin: 
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • 2 Heads: acromiodeltoid and spinodeltoid join and act together. The spinodeltoid portion covers a majority of the infraspinatus muscle located below it. The two heads fuse before insertion.
    • Origin: spine and acromion of scapula
    • Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: flexes the shoulder
  61. Infraspinous muscle 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: infraspinous fossa of scapula
    • Insertion: greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: flexes the shoulder joint and abducts the limb at the shoulder
  62. Supraspinatus muscle – A large part of this muscle is covered by the trapezius and the omotransversarius.
    Origin:
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: supraspinous fossa
    • Insertion: greater tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: extends the shoulder joint
  63. Subscapularis muscle – 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: subscapular fossa of the scapula
    • Insertion: lesser tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: adducts the limb at the shoulder and rotates the leg medially
  64. Teres major muscle – lies caudal to the Subscapularis muscle, and its tendon of insertion joins that of the latissimus dorsi muscle.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: caudal border of the scapula
    • Insertion: Teres major tuberosity of the humerus
    • Action: flexes the shoulder
  65. Biceps Brachii muscle – this muscle is located on the craniomedial aspect of the humerus. It has only one head in animals.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
    • Insertion: ulnar and radial tuberosities
    • Action: flexes the elbow and extends the shoulder
  66. Brachialis muscle – is located on the lateral side of the humerus. It twists laterally and cranially toward its insertion site.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: humerus
    • Insertion: ulnar and radial tuberosities
    • Action: flexes the elbow
  67. Triceps Brachii muscle – this mass is on the caudal aspect of the humerus. It is made up of three heads (long, medial, and lateral) 
    Origin: 
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: long from scapula and the others from the proximal border of the humerus
    • Insertion: all four on the olecranon of the ulna
    • Action: extends the elbow and flexes the shoulder
  68. Muscles distal to the elbow joint are an important collection of carpal and digital _____ and ___________ that play important roles in locomotion.
    flexors; extensors
  69. The two primary antagonistic and most common antagonist are a set of muscles in the pelvic limb is the
    Quads and the Hamstrings
  70. The large gluteal muscles (gluteus medius and gluteus maximus) and the hamstring muscle group are ________ muscles of the hip joint.
    extensor
  71. The largest peripheral nerve in the body serves the entire back leg
    Sciatic Nerve
  72. Hamstring Muscles – name the three muscles located on the back of the thigh region:
    Note: these extend the hip joint and are also the main __________ of the stifle joint.
    • Biceps femoris muscle
    • Semimembranosus muscle
    • Semitendinousus muscle 
    • flexors
  73. Quadriceps Femoris Muscle name the four muscles. This Group of muscles are located on the front of the hind legs.
    • Rectus femoris  
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus medialis
    • Vastus intermedius
  74. Tensor Fasciae Latae – this is a triangular muscle that aponeurosis into a long – thin but wide tendon (the fasciae latae) 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: wing of the ilium
    • Insertion: lateral femoral fascia
    • Action: flexes the hip joint and extends stifle
  75. Commonly used by surgeons to make cuts and strips to replace the anterior cruciate ligaments during repair.
    fasciae latae
  76. Superficial Gluteal muscle – this small triangular muscle lies over the middle gluteal muscle.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: sacrum and coccygeal vertebrae
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: abducts the limb and extends the hip
  77. Middle Gluteal muscle – a large egg-shaped muscle lies cranial to the superficial and caudal to the tensor fascia latae.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: lateral ilium
    • Insertion: greater trochanter of femur
    • Action: abducts the limb and extends hip
  78. Deep Gluteal muscle – the fan-shaped muscle is totally covered by the middle gluteal.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: body of ilium and ischiatic spine
    • Insertion: greater trochanter
    • Action: abducts and extends hip
  79. Biceps Femoris muscle – the longest and widest muscle of the thigh and covers its entire caudolateral aspect. 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: ischiatic tuberosity of the pelvis
    • Insertion: patella, proximal tibia, and tuber calcanei
    • Action: extends hip & tarsal joint, flexes stifle
  80. Semitendinosus muscle – lies medial to the Biceps femoris and lateral to the Semimembranosus.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: ischiatic tuberosity
    • Insertion: tibia and tuber calcanei
    • Action: extends the hip & tarsal joint, flexes the stifle
  81. Semimembranosus muscle – 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: ischiatic tuberosity
    • Insertion: femur and tibia
    • Action: extends the hip and flexes the stifle
  82. Sartorius muscle – 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: on or near the crest of the ilium
    • Insertion: patella and tibia
    • Action: flexes hip & stifle with the caudal part, extends stifle by the cranial belly
  83. Gracilis muscle – this wide flat muscle covers the caudo-medial surface of the medial thigh.
    Origin:
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: pelvic symphysis
    • Insertion: tibia and tuber calcanei
    • Action: adducts the limb, flexes stifle, and extends the hip and hock
  84. Pectineus muscle – a very small spindle-shaped muscle located on the medial aspect. 
    Origin:
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: prepubic tendon
    • Insertion: distal femur
    • Action: adduct the limb
  85. This muscle can be severed to relieve pain in dogs with chronic hip dysplasia. When this no longer relieved the pain, femoral head resection was performed.
    Pectineus muscle
  86. Adductor muscle – a large pyramid-shaped muscle consists of two muscles.
    2 heads: 
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • 2 heads: Adductor Magnus – the larger      Adductor Longus – the smaller
    • Origin: pelvic symphysis
    • Insertion: femur
    • Action: adducts the limb and extends the hip
  87. Quadriceps Femoris Muscles – this group consist of 4 muscles with a common tendon.
    4 heads:
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • 1. Rectus femoris – most cranial head
    • 2. Vastus lateralis
    • 3. Vastus medialis
    • 4. Vastus intermedius
    • Origin: Rectus femoris – ilium; other three – proximal femur
    • Insertion: tibial tuberosity
    • Action: extends the stifle and flexes the hip
  88. Cranial Tibial muscle – is the most cranial muscle of this group.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: cranial tibial border
    • Insertion: proximal metatarsus
    • Action: flexes the tarsal joint
  89. Long Digital Extensor muscle – this is lateral to the cranial tibial muscle and is partly covered by it.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: extensor fossa of the femur
    • Insertion: extensor processes of the distal phalanges
    • Action: extends digital joints & stifle joint, flexes the tarsal joint
  90. Peroneus Longus muscle – this muscle lies caudal and lateral to the long digital extensor.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: proximal end of tibia and fibula
    • Insertion: fourth tarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the base of the metatarsals.
    • Action: flexes the tarsal joint
  91. Gastrocnemius muscle – this is the most superficial muscle of the caudal leg muscles and consists of two heads, each of which has a sesamoid bone embedded near its origin.
    Origin: 
    Insertion:
    Action:
    • Origin: medial and lateral supracondylar tuberosities of the femur
    • Insertion: proximal surface of the tuber calcanei
    • Action: extends the tarsus and flexes the stifle
  92. Deep Digital Flexor muscle – this muscle consists of a lateral head and a much smaller medial head.
    Origin:
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: proximal tibia and fibula
    • Insertion: plantar surface of the distal phalanges
    • Action: extends the tarsal joints and flexes the digital joints
  93. Popliteus muscle – this muscle is covered by the gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor.
    Origin: 
    Insertion: 
    Action:
    • Origin: lateral condyle of femur
    • Insertion: proximal tibia
    • Action: flexes the stifle and rotates the leg medially
  94. Common Calcanean Tendon or the Achilles tendon, is a heavy band of connective tissue that inserts on the tuber calcanei. Five muscles that make up this tendon are:
    • 1. gastrocnemius
    • 2. superficial digital flexor
    • 3. semitendinosus
    • 4. gracilis
    • 5. biceps femoris
  95. The main inspiratory muscles are:
    • diaphragm
    • external intercostal muscles (intercostalis externus)
  96. A thin, dome-shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. The convex surface of its dome shape protrudes into the thoracic cavity. When it contracts, it flattens out somewhat. This pushes the abdominal organs caudally
    Diaphragm
  97. The fibers are directed in an oblique direction so that they contract, they rotate the ribs upward and forward. This increases the size of the thoracic cavity and causes air to be drawn into the lungs.
    External Intercostal Muscle
  98. Two sets of expiratory muscles that aid the process are
    • Internal Intercostal Muscles
    • Abdominal Muscles
  99. Fibers of these muscles run at right angles to those of the external intercostal muscles. When these contract, they rotate the ribs backward, which decreases the size of the thorax and pushes air out of the lungs
    Internal Intercostal Muscles
  100. Four heads simply contract reducing the space of the peritoneal cavity
    Abdominal Muscles
  101. What is the sequence of muscle contraction
    Muscle, muscle fiber, myofibril, myofilament, sarcomeres, Z bands, actin and myosin filaments.
  102. A system common to skeletal muscles only allow for the transport of impulses and nutrients from outside the muscle down to the protein filaments. ___________ extend from the sarcolemma down to the protein filaments
    Transverse or T tubules
  103. The myofibrils that make up the muscle fiber (cell) are composed of thousands of tiny, contractile protein filaments known as
    the actin filaments and myosin filaments
  104. The area from one Z Line to the next Z Line is called a ________ and is the basic contraction unit of skeletal muscle
    Sarcomere
  105. When all the sarcomeres of each myofibril is stimulated to contract, they will contract to
    ½ their normal length
  106. Atrophy of the supraspinous and infraspinous muscles due to trauma to the suprascapular nerve. Common injury due to cowboy spurs
    Sweeny
  107. The sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers connect to muscle fibers are called
    neuromuscular junctions
  108. When an animal is starving and no longer has carbohydrates to break down polysaccharides, disaccharides monosaccharides etc. it goes to fat. Causes the body to breakdown fat and
    muscle to glucose 6 phosphate for energy. This is referred to as __________. When you breakdown muscle and fat down, the by product is called ________.
    • Gluconeogenesis 
    • acidosis 
    • ketone bodies
  109. Nerves that stimulate the spinal muscles and use acetylcholine are
    cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and parasympathetic nerves
  110. Within the end of the nerve fiber in a neuromuscular junction are tiny sacs called _________ that contain the chemical neurotransmitter acetylcholine. When a nerve impulse comes down the fiber, it causes the release of acetylcholine, which diffuses across the synaptic space and binds (attaches) to receptors on the _________. This ultimately starts the process that leads to the contraction of the muscle fiber.
    • synaptic vesicles 
    • sarcolemma
  111. Term to describe one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
    Motor Unit
  112. Each individual skeletal muscle fiber is surrounded by a delicate connective tissue layer composed of fine, reticular fibers called the
    endomysium
  113. Groups of skeletal muscle fibers, called
    fascicles
  114. fascicles, are bound together by a tougher connective tissue layer, called the _______, which is composed of reticular fibers and thick collagen fibers.
    perimysium
  115. Groups of muscle fascicles are surrounded by ___________, a fibrous connective tissue layer composed largely of tough collagen fibers
    epimysium
  116. The impulse travels along the sarcolemma and through the T tubules to the interior of the cell. When the impulse reaches the _______, it causes the release of stored calcium ions into the ________. As the Ca++ diffuses into the myofibrils, it turns on the contraction process, which is powered by high-energy molecules of __________.
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum 
    • sarcoplasm 
    • adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
  117. ATP when it is released becomes _____ and must pick up a phosphate. ADP in the presence of ______ and with ________ will convert ADP to ATP. Glucose and oxygen are necessary for the production of __________.
    • adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
    • creatine phosphate 
    • glucose and oxygen 
    • creatine phosphate.
  118. A catalyst which assists in the reconstitution of ATP
    Creatine kinase
  119. The presence of ATP is required for
    • 1. relaxation, or detachment of the myosin from the actin 
    • 2. for the return of calcium ions to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  120. When the fiber is stimulated to contract, small levers on the myosin filaments, called _____________,  ratchet back and forth and pull the actin filaments on both sides toward the center of the myosin filaments
    cross bridges or ratchets
  121. An individual muscle fiber either contracts completely when it receives a nerve impulse or it does not contract at all. This is known as the ___________. The number of muscle fibers stimulated to contract is controlled by the _________.
    • all-or-none-principle
    • brain
  122. A single muscle fiber contraction is called a 
    twitch contraction 
  123. A single muscle fiber contraction/a twitch contraction can be divided into three phases:
    • Latent phase is the brief hesitation between the nerve stimulus and the beginning of the actual contraction. It lasts 0.01 seconds
    • Contraction phase = 0.04 seconds
    • Relaxation phase = 0.05 seconds
  124. Muscle shortening can occur in the absence of action potentials is referred to as
    rigor or physiologic contracture
  125. Contracture that occurs after death is referred to as
    rigor mortis
  126. Contraction strength varies and is achieved by
    • 1. multiple motor unit summation or
    • 2. wave summation
  127. The summation of one motor unit causes a weak contraction, whereas the stimulation of a large number of motor units develops a strong contraction. This is known as motor unit summation. All gradations of contraction strength are possible, depending on the number of motor units stimulated
    Multiple Motor Unit Summation
  128. Increasing the strength of contraction by this summation occurs when the frequency of contraction is increased. When a muscle is stimulated to contract before the muscle has relaxed, the strength of the subsequent contraction is increased
    Wave Summation
  129. When the frequency is sufficient such that the individual muscle twitches become fused into a single prolonged contraction, the strength is at a maximum; this condition is known as
    tetany
  130. Tetanus is a _____ disease caused by a potent neurotoxin known as ______ elaborated by the organism ________. The neurotoxin reaches the CNS and prevents release of an inhibitory transmitter (glycine). The resulting sensitivity to excitatory impulses, unchecked by inhibitory impulses, produces generalized muscular spasms (tetany).
    • bacterial 
    • tetanospasmin 
    • Clostridium tetani
  131. Soliped that is most susceptible to Clostridium?
    Animal least susceptible is the
    • Horse
    • turkey
  132. Muscle seems to “warm up” to a maximum contraction state. This can be shown by applying stimuli of equal intensity a few seconds apart to muscle. Each successive muscle twitch has slightly more strength that the previous one, until optimal contraction strength is reached. Successive stimulations are believed to provide for an increasing concentration of calcium ions in the sarcoplasm during the beginning contractions of rested muscles 
    Treppe or the staircase phenomenon
  133. The immediate energy source that powers the sliding of the actin and myosin filaments is the compound ATP, which is produced by the many ___________in muscle fibers
    mitochondria
  134. Glucose is stored in the Muscle fibers in the form of glycogen, and oxygen is stored attached to large protein molecules called 
    myoglobin
  135. Glucose is stored as 
    glycogen
  136. Oxygen attaches to large protein molecules called
    myoglobin
  137. As long as the oxygen supply is adequate to keep up with the energy needs of the muscle
    fiber
    Aerobic Metabolism
  138. During periods of strenuous activity, the need for oxygen exceeds the available supply and muscle fibers must shift to what is called _______ to produce energy required for continued activities. It should be mentioned that this type of metabolism is not as efficient as aerobic metabolism and results in ___________ as a byproduct of incomplete glucose breakdown.
    • anaerobic metabolism 
    • lactic acid formation
  139. A considerable amount of the energy produced in muscles is lost in the form of
    heat
  140. If heat production exceeds body needs, the excess must be eliminated by mechanisms such as
    panting or sweating
  141. Under cold conditions, the body may need to increase the production of heat to avoid hypothermia. It often does this by producing the small, spasmodic muscle contractions we know as
    shivering
  142. Cardiac Muscle - Also known as 
    Involuntary Striated Muscle
  143. cardiac muscle cells form elaborate networks around the
    cardiac chambers
  144. The firm end-to-end attachments sites between cardiac muscle cells are called
    intercalated disks.
  145. 2 unique and important things about cardiac muscle:
    • 1. It contracts without the external stimulation
    • 2. Groups of cardiac muscle cells adopt the contraction rate of the most rapid cell in the group
  146. The impulse that starts each heart beat begins
    in the ________ (Common name heart’s ________), located in the ___________.
    • sinoatrial (SA) node
    • “pacemaker”
    • wall of the right atrium
  147. The sympathetic fibers stimulate the heart to
    beat harder and faster as part of the “fight or flight response” that kicks in when an animal fells threatened
  148. The parasympathetics fibers
    inhibit cardiac function, thereby causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force when the body is relaxed and resting.
  149. Smooth Muscle - also called 
    Non-striated involuntary muscle
  150. smooth muscle is found in two main forms: 
    • 1. Visceral smooth muscle
    • 2. multiunit smooth muscle
  151. Because their contractile units are not organized into regular, parallel sarcomeres, individual smooth muscle cells can shorten to 
    a greater extent than skeletal or cardiac muscle cells
  152. Visceral smooth muscle is found in the walls of many soft, internal organs, which are also known by the general name _______. Its cells are linked to form large sheets in the walls of organs such as the 
    • viscera
    • stomach, intestine, uterus, and urinary bladder
  153. Sympathetic stimulation _______ visceral smooth muscle activity, and parasympathetic stimulation ______ it
    • decreases
    • increases 
  154. Small and delicate, this muscle is made up of individual smooth muscle cells or small
    groups of cells. They require impulses from _______ nerves to contract
    • multiunit smooth muscle
    • autonomic
  155. Pupil is contacted
    Myosis
  156. Pupil is dilatated
    Mydriasis
  157. A
    Masseter

  158. B
    Sternocephalicus

  159. C
    Brachiocephalicus

  160. D
    Deltoideus

  161. E & G
    Pectoral

  162. F
    Triceps

  163. H
    External Intercostal

  164. I
    External Abdominal Oblique

  165. J
    Gastrocnemius

  166. K
    Hamstring Group - Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus

  167. L
    Biceps femoris

  168. M
    Gluteal group

  169. N
    Quadriceps group

  170. O
    Latissimus dorsi

  171. P
    Trapezius

  172. Q
    Serratus Ventralis

  173. R
    Splenis
  174. Name 2 heads of the sternocephalicus muscle
    Stenohyoid; sternomastoid
  175. What 2 muscles form along the jugular groove?
    Sternocephalicus; brachiocephalicus
  176. When you give an injection it is between what two muscles
    sternocephalicus; cleidobrachialis
  177. What muscle is located over the radius and is used to extend the carpus?
    Extensor Carpi Radialis
  178. When does the cardiac muscle start contracting?
    early in the embryonic period
  179. What is the difference between cardiac and skeletal muscle?
    Cardiac muscle is smaller than skeletal and have only one nucleus per cell.
  180. Origin: Occipital and temporal bone
    Insertion: Ventral mandible
    Action: Opens the mouth
    Digastricus
  181. Origin: Medial surface of mandible
    Insertion: Ventral median raphe between bones of mandible
    Action: Raises the floor of the mouth.
    Mylohyoideus

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