NASM CPT Chpt - 2

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NASM CPT Chpt - 2
2013-03-22 16:00:32

NASM CPT Chpt - 2
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  1. Human Movement System
    The combination and interrelation of the nervous, skeletal, and muscular system
  2. Nervous System
    A conglomerate of billions of cells specifically designed to provide a communication network within the human body
  3. Sensory Function
    The ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment
  4. Integrative Function
    The ability of the NS to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response.
  5. Motor Function
    The neuro-muscular systems response to the sensory information
  6. Proprioception
    THe cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all the mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement
  7. Neuron
    The functional unit of the Nervous system
  8. Sensory (Afferent) Neurons
    Transmit nerve impulses from effector sites (such as muscles and organs) via receptors to the brain and spinal cord.
  9. Interneurons
    Transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another
  10. Motor (Efferent) Neurons
    Transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to effector sites
  11. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    The portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
  12. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    Cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body
  13. Mechanoreceptors
    Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues
  14. Muscle Spindles
    Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change
  15. Golgi Tendon Organs
    Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change
  16. Joint Receptors
    Receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration of the joint.
  17. Axial Skeleton
    • Consists of 
    • 1. Skull
    • 2. Rib Cage
    • 3. Vertebral Column
  18. Appendicular Skeleton
    • Consists of
    • 1. Upper Extremities
    • 2. Lower Extremities
  19. Arthrokinematics
    Joint Motion
  20. Epimysium
    A layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle
  21. Perimysium
    The connective tissue that surrounds the fascicles
  22. Endomysium
    The deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers
  23. Ligament
    Connective tissue that connects bones to bones
  24. Tendon
    Connective tissues that connect muscle to bone
  25. Sarcomere
    THe functional unit of muscle that produces musculature contraction and consists of repeating sections and action and myosin
  26. Neural Activation
    The contraction of a muscle generated by neural activation
  27. Motor Unit
    A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates
  28. Neuro Transmitters
    Chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle
  29. Sliding Filament Theory
    1. A sarcomere shortens as a result of the Z lines moving closer together 

    2. The Z lines converge as the result of the myosin heads attaching to the action filament and asynchronously pulling (power strokes) the actin filament across the myosin, resulting in shortening of the muscle fibers.
  30. Type I (slow-twitch) Muscle Fiber Characteristics:
    • More capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • Increase oxygen delivery
    • Smaller in size
    • Less force produced 
    • Slow to fatigue
    • Long-term contraction (stabilization)
  31. Type II (fast-twitch) Muscle Fiber Characteristics:
    • Fewer capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin
    • Decreased oxygen delivery
    • Larger in size
    • More force produced
    • Quick to fatigue
    • Short-term contractions (force and power)
  32. Agonist: Function, Exercise, and Muscle Used
    Function: Prime Mover

    • Exercise:
    • 1) Chest Press ---------- Pectoralis Major
    • 2) Overhead Press ----- Deltoid
    • 3) Row ------------------ Latissimus Dorsi
    • 4) Squat -------------- Gluteus Maximus,  Quads
  33. Synergist: Function, Exercise, and Muscle Used
    Function: Assist Prime Mover

    • Exercise:
    • 1) Chest Press ---------- Anterior deltoid, triceps
    • 2) Overhead Press ----- Triceps
    • 3) Row ------------------ Posterior Deltoid, Biceps
    • 4) Squat -------------- Hamstring Complex
  34. Stabilizer: Function, Exercise, and Muscle Used
    Function: Stabilize while prime mover and synergist work

    • Exercise:
    • 1) Chest Press ---------- Rotator Cuff
    • 2) Overhead Press ----- Rotator Cuff
    • 3) Row ------------------ Rotator Cuff
    • 4) Squat -------------- Transverse Abdominis
  35. Antagonist: Function, Exercise, and Muscle Used
    Function: Oppose prime mover

    • Exercise:
    • 1) Chest Press ---------- Posterior Deltoid
    • 2) Overhead Press ----- Latissimus Dorsi
    • 3) Row ------------------ Pectoralis Major
    • 4) Squat ---------------- Psoas