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The study of energy in the human body
All of the chemical reactions that occur in the body to maintain itself. Metabolism is the process in which nutrients are acquired, transported, used, and disposed of by the body.
The examination of bioenergetics as it relates to the unique physiologic changes and demands placed on the body during exercise.
The material or substance on which an enzyme acts.
Release energy to cells.
Organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Include straches, cellulose, sugars, and are all important for energy.
All carb. are eventually broken down in the body to glucose, a simple sugar.
A simple sugar manufactured by the body from carbohydrates, fat, and to a lesser extent protein.
Serves as the bodies main source of fuel
The complex carbohydrate molecule used to store carbohydrates in the liver and muscle cells.
When carbohydrate energy is needed, glycogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells.
Help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy
Serves as energy sources for the body. In food, there are two types of fat: Saturated and Unsaturated
The chemical or substrate in which most fat exists is food as well as in the body
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds, which consists of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and usually sulfur, and that have several essential biological compounds.
The formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources, such as amino acids
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
A high-energy compound occurring in all cells from which ATP is formed
ATP ⇿ ___ + ___ + ___
ATP ⇿ ADP + Pi + energy release
The 3 Metabolic pathways in which cells generate ATP
- 1. ATP-PC System
- 2. The glycolytic system (glycolysis)
- 3. The oxidative system (oxidative phosphorylation)
PC is an abbreviation for phosphocreatine. PC, like ATP, is stored in the muscle cells, and when it is broken down, a large amount of energy is released. The energy released is coupled to the energy requirement necessary for the resynthesis of ATP.
The total muscular stores of both ATP and PC are very small. Thus, the amount of energy obtainable through this system is limited. In fact, if you were to run 100 meters as fast as you could, the phosphagen stores in the working muscles would probably be empty by the end of the sprint. However, the usefulness of the ATP-PC system lies in the rapid availability of energy rather than quantity. This is extremely important with respect to the kinds of physical activities that we are capable of performing.
The other anaerobic means of producing ATP is through the chemical breakdown of glucose, a process referred to as anaerobic glycolysis. Before glucose or glycogen can generate energy, it must be converted to a chemical compound compound called glucose-6-phosphate. The end result of glycolysis in which glucose or glycogen is broken down to either pyruvic acid (aerobic glycolysis) or lactic acid (anaerobic glycolysis) is two ATP from each unit of glucose and three ATP from each unit of glycogen.
Limited to approximately 30 to 50 seconds of duration
The breakdown of triglycerides into smaller subunits called free fatty acids (FFA's) to convert FFA's into it acetylcholine (acly-CoA) molecules, which are then available to enter the Krebs cycle and ultimately lead to production of adtitonal ATP
Energy During Exercise Graph + Explaination
The line labeled immediate energy systems represents a very short duration of exercise (for example a sprint) and shows that the primary fuel source is stored ATP and phosphocreatine, but a small portion of energy still comes from an anaerobic glycolysis and a aerobic metabolism. The duration of exercise increases (up to approximately 2 minutes) the primary source of energy comes from anaerobic metabolism of glucose (anaerobic glycolysis) but some energy comes from other pathways as well. After several minutes of exercise the oxidation of glucose in fat predominates as the primary source of energy.
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC)
The state in which the bodies metabolism is elevated after exercise
Amount of time required for recovery of ATP-PC system is:
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