Blood

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esellers
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208843
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Blood
Updated:
2013-03-22 00:17:16
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Blood
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Blood
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  1. Generally blood leaves heart via____ and enters heart through_____
    arteries, viens
  2. The nonliving fluid component of the blood is called
    plasma
  3. Percentage of erythrocytes used in clinical exams is called
    hematocrit
  4. When compared to water's density bloods density is
    five times more dense
  5. When comparted to body temp blood's temp is____and is_____C
    high, 38C
  6. The 3 functions of blood are
    distribuation, regulation, protection
  7. Name the 3 formed elements of the blood
    RBC, WBC, platelets
  8. The cells of the formed element of blood that are anucleate (without nucleous) are
    mature RBC
  9. RBC lack the following organelle
    Mitochondria
  10. ATP and RBC is generated by______mechanism
    anaerobic
  11. RBC dynamically change shape due to the presence of cytoskeletal protein,______
    spectrin
  12. The component of the RBC, which picks up oxygen, is_______
    hemoglobin
  13. The protien globin of Hb is bound to red pigment of Hb called
    heme
  14. Globin has_____ number of polypeptide chaings are they are____ and _____
    • 4
    • 2 alpha
    • 2 beta
  15. Each RBC can carry around______oxygen molecule
    1 million
  16. Production of blood cells is by a process called
    hemopoesis
  17. Blood cell production site is
    bone marrow
  18. All blood cells are formed from the _____ or _____
    stem cell or hemocytoblast
  19. Differentiation of a stem cell to a particular type of blood cell is by
    appearance of membrane
  20. Stem cells are also called
    multi or pluripotential
  21. RBC production is by a process called
    erythropoesis
  22. Young RBC formed by differentiation of stem cell is called
    reticulocyte
  23. Clinical index of RBC formation can be known by counting the number of
    reticulocyte
  24. RBC production is controlled by a hormone called____,which is produced in_____
    erythorpoetin, liver and kindey
  25. _____, a sec hormone also stimulates RBC production.
    Testosterone
  26. The vitamin essential for RBC synthesis is
    B12
  27. Iron is stored as____and____in liver, spleen, and bone marrow
    ferritin and hemosederin
  28. The blood iron is loosley bound to a protein called____
    transferrin
  29. The graveyard of RBC is_____
    spleen
  30. Loss of blood leads to_____anemia
    hemorrhagic
  31. Hemolytic anemia is caused by_____
    rupture of RBC
  32. Destruction of bone marrow leads to____anemia
    aplastic
  33. If less iron is present in RBC these RBC are called_____mic
    microcytes
  34. Pernicious anemia is caused due to
    lack of B12
  35. In patients with perinicous anemia RBC grow but do not divide and these are called
    macrocytes or pale cells
  36. Thalassemia is due to_____
    low number of thin and delicate RBC
  37. Sickle cell anemia is due to abnormal structure of_____portions of RBC
    hemoglobin
  38. Sickel ceel anemia is due to change in 1 amino acid out of 287.  This is______
    single point mutation
  39. Polycythemia is due to____
    more RBC
  40. Bone marrow cancer leads to_____
    polycythemia vera
  41. People living at high altitudes exhibit
    secondary polycythemia
  42. Blood doping is an example of artificially induced
    polychythemia
  43. At high altitudes the number of RBC_____, so that______
    • increase
    • more oxygen can get in
  44. In case of polycythemia the hematocrit value_____
    increases (80%)
  45. The movement of WBC out of blood stream is called
    diapedesis
  46. WBC movement following chemical trail is an example of
    postive chemotaxis
  47. Basing on strucutre and chemical characters WBC are divided into ____ and _____
    granulo and agranulocutes
  48. Name 3 granulocytes
    BEN (baso, easono, neutriphils)
  49. Name the two agrandulocytes
    LM (lympho and monocytes)
  50. A grandulocyte that takes up both acid and base dyes is
    neutrophil
  51. Neutrophils contain an antibiotic protein called
    defensins
  52. Telephone receivers shaped nucleus is seen in
    easonophil
  53. The class of WBC which fight against worm infection is
    easonophil
  54. Basophils contain______granules
    histamine
  55. Cells similar to basophils found in connective tissue are_____
    mast cells
  56. Basophils bind to____to release histamine.
    IgE
  57. The process of WBC production is called
    leukopoesis
  58. The leukocyte that can survive decades is
    lymphocytes
  59. Excessive production of WBC causes
    leukemia and mononucleosis
  60. Low WBC count in the blood can lead to a disease called
    leukopenea
  61. Name the 2 types of leukemia and the cells that cause these disease
    myelocytic and lymphocytic
  62. Acute leukemia is generally found in______where as chronic leukemia in_____
    • children
    • adults
  63. Infectious mononucleosis is caused by_____ virus
    Epsten-Barr
  64. Cytoplasmic fragments of large megakaryocytes found in blood are
    platelets
  65. Platelets production is regulated by a hormone called
    thrombopoetin
  66. Platelets with nucleus in other mammals also called as
    thrombocytes
  67. Name the 3 main stages invovled in hemostasis
    vascular spasm, plug formation, clot
  68. Mention 2 factors which cause vasoconstriction
    injury, compression, reflex chemicals
  69. Platelets when adhere to the surface release a chemical called
    thrombaxane A2
  70. Serotonin released by the stimulation of thrombaxane promotes
    vascular spasm
  71. ADP released by the stimulation of thrombaxane promotes
    plug formation
  72. The platelet plug is limited to damage area by
    PG12
  73. The trigger for actual coagulation process is
    plug formation
  74. Mention the 3 important events of coagulation
    prothrombin, thrombin, fibrin
  75. Factors that enhance clot formation are called
    Procoagulants
  76. Factors that inhibit clot formation are called
    anticoagulants
  77. Factors are the plasma proteins synthesize in
    liver
  78. Clotting of blood invitro is by______pathway
    intrinsic
  79. The molecules on the platelet plug that activates clotting is
    PF3
  80. When cells are injured the factor that is repleased which promotes clotting is_____
    thromboplastin or tissue factor
  81. The important element essential for all the steps of clotting is
    calcium
  82. Factor X and tissue factor combine to form
    prothormbin activator
  83. Prothormbin is converted to thrombin by
    prothrombin activator
  84. Thrombin catayzes the polymerization of soluble____ to insoluble_____
    Fibrogen, fibrin
  85. The cross linker enzyme that stabilizes the clot is
    Fibrin stabalizing Factor (XIII)
  86. Clot is stabalized by a platelet induced process called
    clot retraction
  87. Contraction of platelet plug is facilitated by a protein called
    actomyosin
  88. ____ stimulates smooth muscle and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild vessels
    PDGF
  89. Removal of unneeded clots is called_______
    fibrinolysis
  90. The natural clot buster is
    plasmin
  91. Inactive plasminogen is converted to active plasmin by
    tissue plasminogen activator
  92. Name three chemicals which inhibit the activity of activated clot factors
    antithrombin, heparin, EDTA
  93.  Undesirable clot formation leads to
    Thromboembolytic disorders
  94. Cloth in an unbroken blood vessel is called
    thrombus
  95. Free floating clot in blood stream is called
    embolus
  96. Purple patches on the skin due to platelet deficiency is called
    petechiae
  97. Hemophilia A is due to deficiency of
    factor Viii
  98. Hemophilia B is due to deficiency of____
    factor XI
  99. Name 2 salts that re used to store blood at 4C for several weeks
    oxalates and citrates
  100. A blood group has______aggluntinogen
    A
  101. O blood group has____agglutinogens
    NO
  102. ______act against RBC carring ABO antigens
    agglutinins
  103. New born babies do not have
    agglutinins
  104. Ph factor is first identified in
    Rhesus monkey
  105. The Rh+ antibodies of the mother entering into the Rh+ baby causes
    destory RBC of baby
  106. Mention 3 events when mismatch blood is given to a pt
    agglutination, clotting, rupture
  107. Mane 3 plasma and blood volumes expanders
    albumin, dextrah, saline
  108. A fetus carries a unique blood group named____ which has 2____ and 2____chains
    • HbF
    • alpha
    • gamma

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