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  1. Emergence of a Mass Society: larger and vastly improved __ environment, new patterns of __, __issues,__ and __ were important features of European society
    • urban
    • social structure
    • gender
    •  mass education, and mass leisure
  2. Population Growth
    • a.      Increased dramatically between 1850-1910 (270 milà 460 mil+)
    • b.      Between 1850 and 1880, the main cause of the population increase was rising birthrate, but after 1880, death rates declinedà increase in population
  3. Two major factors
    •  a.      Two major factors: medical discoveries and environmental conditions
    •                                                               i.      Smallpox vaccinations
    •                                                             ii.      Improvements in urban environment that reduced fatalities from diarrhea, dysentery, etc., which spread through water supplies and sewage
  4. Nutrition
    •                                                               i.      Improved nutrition due to increased agricultural productivity combined with improvements in transportation facilitated the shipment of food supplies from areas of surplus to regions with poor harvests
    • 1.      Better nutrition and food hygiene were instrumental in decline in infant mortality
    •                                                             ii.      Pasteurization of milk reduced intestinal disorders
  5. Emigration
    •                                                               i.      Agricultural and industrial prosperity increased population, but couldn’t support it for longà emigration
    • 1.      1913: more than 400,000 Poles were working in the heavily industrialized Ruhr region of western Germany, and thousands of Italian laborers had migrated to France
  6. Industrialized regions
    •                                                               i.      Industrialized regions of Europe couldn’t support either, but booming economies of North America couldà emigration to US at beginning of 20th
    • 1.      1880: 500,000 people left Europe each year on average
    • 2.      1906-1910: increased to 1.3 million
  7. Not only economic motives
                                                                  i.      Not only economic motives, but also nationalities that were oppressed left, such as Germans and Magyars and Jews, who were severely persecuted
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2013-03-22 05:01:06
HON 122

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