Ed Psychology Chapters 8 & 9

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  1. What is the constructivist View of Learning?
    Students "construct" knowledge in their own minds, they are not simply given the knowledge
  2. What does the constructivist theory of learning emphasize?
    learners must individually discover and transform complex information

    checking new information against old rules; revising rules when they no longer work
  3. What are Vygotsky's four key concepts for classroom instruction?
    1. Social Nature of Learning

    2. Zone of Proximal Development

    3. Cognitive Apprenticeship 

    4. Mediated Learning
  4. What does Vygotsky's first key concept, Social Nature of Learning, deal with?
    children learn though sociable actions with adults or peers and are also learning through use of private speech
  5. What does Vygotsky's Second Key Concept, Zone of Proximal Development, deal with?
    Teaching students just beyond their current learning level

    evaluate where student is and plan teacher-student interaction strategy accordingliny
  6. What does Vygotsky's Third key concept, Cognitive Apprenticeship, deal with?
    learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer
  7. What does Vygotsky's Fourth key concept, Mediated Learning, deal with?
    Scaffolding is used to help with difficult tasks in order for learning to take place
  8. What are the Top-Down and Bottom-Up processes?
    Top-Down is teaching complex problems then discovering basic skills

    Bottom-Up is teaching basic skills and discovering complex problems
  9. Discovery Learning is a _______ not a ________.

  10. What is scaffolding?
    support for learning, provide structure then gradually remove it
  11. What is Reciprocal Teaching?
    small group teaching method where, through instruction and modeling, teachers foster meta-cognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension

    increase success for low achievers
  12. What is Cooperative Learning?
    instructional approaches in which students work in small mixed ability groups

    taught specific skills and helps the students help each other, discuss with each other, and make sure each member got the material
  13. What does STAD stand for?
    Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
  14. What are Student Teams-Achievement Divisions?
    mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning
  15. What does TGT stand for?
    Team Game Tournaments
  16. What are Team Game Tournaments?
    you have different teams where individuals from each team go against each other and compete to win "points" for his or her team
  17. What does CIRC stand for?
    Cooperative Integrated Reading & Composition
  18. What is Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition?
    comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades
  19. What is the Jigsaw Method of cooperative learning?
    students are assigned to 6-member teams to work on material that has been broken down into sections for each member

    then they interact with the individual from the other team in order to master the material 

    then they teach the material to their own team
  20. What does PALS stand for?
    Peer-Assisted Learning Stratagies
  21. What are Peer-assisted Learning Strategies?
    students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific meta-cognitive strategies
  22. What is 21st Century Learning in terms of Cooperative Learning?

    Ability to solve Problems

    Learning in Groups

    Social Skills - Listening, Consensus Building, Support Others

    Critical Thinking
  23. What is the Ideal Model?
    I  _______
    D _______
    E  _______
    A  _______
    L  _______
    Identify problems and Opportunities

    Define goals and represent the problem

    Explore possible Strategies

    Anticipate Outcomes and Act

    Look back and Learn
  24. What is **Incubation** in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
    Alott time for pause and reflect on the problem, then think through before answering
  25. What is Suspension of Judgement in terms of TeachingCreative Problem Solving?
    considering all possibilities, brainstorming
  26. What are Appropriate Climates in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
    problem solving is enhanced in a relaxed, fitting, even playful environment
  27. What is Analysis in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
    look at the entire problem
  28. What is Engaging Problems in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
    providing problems that are intriguing and engaging for the children
  29. What is Feedback in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
    giving feedback is the most effective way of promoting problem solving
  30. What is the Four Step Process involved in creating a "Culture of Thinking"?
    1. State

    2. Search

    3. Evaluate

    4. Elaborate and Make a Plan
  31. How Do Vygotsky's Theories of Learning and development influence constructivism?
    • Constructivists rely heavily on vygotsky's theories which emphasize cooperative learning, project-based learning, and discovery. His four principals have played a large role in Constructivism.
    • Social Learning
    • Zone of Proximal Development
    • Cognitive Apprenticeship
    • Mediated Learning
  32. What are the Elements of an Effective Instruction?
    Teachers must Meet the Diverse Needs of Students

    • Teachers must:
    • Motivate Students to learn
    • Manage their behavior
    • Group them for Instruction
    • Assess their learning
    • Modify instruction based on Assessment
  33. What does Carroll's Model of QAIT stand for?

    Q ________
    A ________
    I ________
    T ________
    Quality of Instruction

    Appropriate Levels of Instruction


  34. What is Quality of Instruction from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
    the degree of which presentation of information or skills helps students easily learn the material. Quality of instruction is largely a product of the quality of the curriculum and of lesson presentation
  35. What is Appropriate Levels of Instruction  from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
    the degree to which the teacher makes sure the students are ready to learn a new lesson but have not already learned the lesson
  36. What is Incentive from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
    the degree to which the teacher makes sure that students are motivated to work on instructional tasks and to learn the material being presented
  37. What is Time from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
    the degree to which students are given enough time to learn the material being taught
  38. What is Tracking?
    Tracks are curriculum sequences to which students of specified achievement or ability level are assigned
  39. What is Between-Class Ability grouping and what does research say about it?
    practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level

    research does not support its use because its narrowed and lacks different teaching stratagies
  40. What is Within-Class Grouping?
    system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into 2 or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects
  41. What is the Regrouping Method?
    students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels
  42. What are the Proponent views and Opponent views of Retention (Holding students back)?
    • Proponents:
    • allows them to catch up
    • have to meet criteria to move forward

    • Opponents:
    • students lose motivation to learn

    Note: Strongest predictor of dropping out
  43. What is Differentiated Instruction?
    approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular classes
  44. What are some different Tutoring Programs and by whom?
    • Peer Tutoring - one student, one peer
    • can be cross-age (younger student to older student)
    • can be learning process for both partners

    • Teacher Tutoring - one-to-one adult-to-child
    • can also be parents or other relatives
  45. What are some factors related to Tutoring?
    Must have training, have to understand rules & expectations, have to be supervised, and must be able to record progress
  46. What are Compensatory Education Programs?
    supplements the education of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who are experiencing trouble in school
  47. What is Title 1?
    • funds used to help remedial students
    • federally funded
    • MUST be used for this reason, cannot be used to increase salaries
    • research says not much communication for transference
  48. What do Comprehensive School Reform Programs address?
    Curriculum, Instruction  Assessment, grouping,  accommodation
  49. What is Hypertext & Hypermedia?
    related information that appears when a computer user clicks on a word or picture
  50. What is Web 2.0?
    Free Collaborative Online Communication
  51. What are some examples of Collaborative Online Communication?
    Blogs, Wikis, RSS Feeds (Lets users know when new information is posted), Podcasts, Social Networking
  52. What is Embedded Multimedia?
    video woven into lessons, **dual code theory states that this enhances learning
  53. Apply the Quality of Instruction portion of the QAIT model to Instruction
    use examples like demonstrations, pictures, diagrams, to make ideas vivid for strategies
  54. Apply the Appropriate Levels of Instruction portion of the QAIT model to instruction
    You may use ability-grouping to help students in this prospect otherwise you risk effecting the entire class
  55. Apply the Incentive portion of the QAIT model to instruction
    Either orient the lesson to the students by making them want to enjoy the lesson or provide rewards such as praise, feedback, grades, certificates, stars, prizes, etc.
  56. Apply the Time portion of the QAIT model to instruction
    keep students well behaved and motivated and incorporate high levels of the other portions of QAIT, and time can be used effectively in instruction
  57. How do the elements of QAIT interact to produce effective instruction?
    (use knowledge)
Card Set:
Ed Psychology Chapters 8 & 9
2013-03-22 05:14:50
ed psych education psychology test

quiz on chapters 8 & 9 for educational psychology
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