Students "construct" knowledge in their own minds, they are not simply given the knowledge
What does the constructivist theory of learning emphasize?
learners must individually discover and transform complex information
checking new information against old rules; revising rules when they no longer work
What are Vygotsky's four key concepts for classroom instruction?
1. Social Nature of Learning
2. Zone of Proximal Development
3. Cognitive Apprenticeship
4. Mediated Learning
What does Vygotsky's first key concept, Social Nature of Learning, deal with?
children learn though sociable actions with adults or peers and are also learning through use of private speech
What does Vygotsky's Second Key Concept, Zone of Proximal Development, deal with?
Teaching students just beyond their current learning level
evaluate where student is and plan teacher-student interaction strategy accordingliny
What does Vygotsky's Third key concept, Cognitive Apprenticeship, deal with?
learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer
What does Vygotsky's Fourth key concept, Mediated Learning, deal with?
Scaffolding is used to help with difficult tasks in order for learning to take place
What are the Top-Down and Bottom-Up processes?
Top-Down is teaching complex problems then discovering basic skills
Bottom-Up is teaching basic skills and discovering complex problems
Discovery Learning is a _______ not a ________.
What is scaffolding?
support for learning, provide structure then gradually remove it
What is Reciprocal Teaching?
small group teaching method where, through instruction and modeling, teachers foster meta-cognitive skills primarily to improve the reading performance of students who have poor comprehension
increase success for low achievers
What is Cooperative Learning?
instructional approaches in which students work in small mixed ability groups
taught specific skills and helps the students help each other, discuss with each other, and make sure each member got the material
What does STAD stand for?
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions
What are Student Teams-Achievement Divisions?
mixed-ability groupings involving team recognition and group responsibility for individual learning
What does TGT stand for?
Team Game Tournaments
What are Team Game Tournaments?
you have different teams where individuals from each team go against each other and compete to win "points" for his or her team
What does CIRC stand for?
Cooperative Integrated Reading & Composition
What is Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition?
comprehensive program for teaching reading and writing in the upper elementary grades
What is the Jigsaw Method of cooperative learning?
students are assigned to 6-member teams to work on material that has been broken down into sections for each member
then they interact with the individual from the other team in order to master the material
then they teach the material to their own team
What does PALS stand for?
Peer-Assisted Learning Stratagies
What are Peer-assisted Learning Strategies?
students work in pairs taking turns as teacher and learner, using specific meta-cognitive strategies
What is 21st Century Learning in terms of Cooperative Learning?
Ability to solve Problems
Learning in Groups
Social Skills - Listening, Consensus Building, Support Others
What is the Ideal Model?
Identify problems and Opportunities
Define goals and represent the problem
Explore possible Strategies
Anticipate Outcomes and Act
Look back and Learn
What is **Incubation** in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
Alott time for pause and reflect on the problem, then think through before answering
What is Suspension of Judgement in terms of TeachingCreative Problem Solving?
considering all possibilities, brainstorming
What are Appropriate Climates in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
problem solving is enhanced in a relaxed, fitting, even playful environment
What is Analysis in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
look at the entire problem
What is Engaging Problems in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
providing problems that are intriguing and engaging for the children
What is Feedback in terms of Teaching Creative Problem Solving?
giving feedback is the most effective way of promoting problem solving
What is the Four Step Process involved in creating a "Culture of Thinking"?
4. Elaborate and Make a Plan
How Do Vygotsky's Theories of Learning and development influence constructivism?
Constructivists rely heavily on vygotsky's theories which emphasize cooperative learning, project-based learning, and discovery. His four principals have played a large role in Constructivism.
Zone of Proximal Development
What are the Elements of an Effective Instruction?
Teachers must Meet the Diverse Needs of Students
Motivate Students to learn
Manage their behavior
Group them for Instruction
Assess their learning
Modify instruction based on Assessment
What does Carroll's Model of QAIT stand for?
Quality of Instruction
Appropriate Levels of Instruction
What is Quality of Instruction from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
the degree of which presentation of information or skills helps students easily learn the material. Quality of instruction is largely a product of the quality of the curriculum and of lesson presentation
What is Appropriate Levels of Instruction from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
the degree to which the teacher makes sure the students are ready to learn a new lesson but have not already learned the lesson
What is Incentive from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
the degree to which the teacher makes sure that students are motivated to work on instructional tasks and to learn the material being presented
What is Time from Carroll's Model of QAIT?
the degree to which students are given enough time to learn the material being taught
What is Tracking?
Tracks are curriculum sequences to which students of specified achievement or ability level are assigned
What is Between-Class Ability grouping and what does research say about it?
practice of grouping students in separate classes according to ability level
research does not support its use because its narrowed and lacks different teaching stratagies
What is Within-Class Grouping?
system of accommodating student differences by dividing a class of students into 2 or more ability groups for instruction in certain subjects
What is the Regrouping Method?
students in mixed-ability classes are assigned to reading or math classes on the basis of their performance levels
What are the Proponent views and Opponent views of Retention (Holding students back)?
allows them to catch up
have to meet criteria to move forward
students lose motivation to learn
Note: Strongest predictor of dropping out
What is Differentiated Instruction?
approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular classes
What are some different Tutoring Programs and by whom?
Peer Tutoring - one student, one peer
can be cross-age (younger student to older student)
can be learning process for both partners
Teacher Tutoring - one-to-one adult-to-child
can also be parents or other relatives
What are some factors related to Tutoring?
Must have training, have to understand rules & expectations, have to be supervised, and must be able to record progress
What are Compensatory Education Programs?
supplements the education of students from disadvantaged backgrounds who are experiencing trouble in school
What is Title 1?
funds used to help remedial students
MUST be used for this reason, cannot be used to increase salaries
research says not much communication for transference
What do Comprehensive School Reform Programs address?