Miscellaneous Drugs MOA

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Miscellaneous Drugs MOA
2013-03-22 01:53:23
sulfonamides TB drugs anti folates quinolones

sulfonamides, TB drugs, anti-folates, quinolones
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  1. Colistin
    Targets cell wall. 1. Displaces Mg2+ and Ca2+ from phosphate groups in LPS --> destabilizing membrane --> inc permeability, leakage, cell death. 2. binds to and neutralizes LPS --> anti-endotoxin effect
  2. Fosfomycin
    Targets cell wall. 1. Prevents action of pyruvyl transferase 2. inhibits bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells.
  3. Metronidazole and Tinidazole
    Targets DNA/prot production. Prodrug activated by nitro-reductase enzyme. 1. creates free radicals which inactivate nucleic acids 2. creates concentration gradient that facilitates influx of more prodrug
  4. Nitrofurantoin
    Targets DNA/prot production. Prodrug activated by nitro-reductase enzyme. Binds to ribosomal enzymes, preventing transcription --> dec prot, RNA and DNA synthesis
  5. Fluoroquinolones
    Targets DNA/prot production. 1. prevents action of DNA gyrase (topo II) 2. prevents action of topo IV...forms tertiary stabilizing complex that prevents normal enzyme fxn
  6. Cotrimoxazole
    Targets folate synthesis. 1. sulfonamides compete with PABA for DHPS to dec dihydrofolic acid 2. trimethoprim competes with dihydrofolic acid for DHFR to dec tetrahydrofolic acid
  7. Dapsone
    Targets folate synthesis. Competes with PABA for DHPS to dec dihydrofolic acid
  8. Isoniazid
    Antimycotic. Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis (an essential part of mycobacterial cell wall). Forms isonicotinoyl radical which adducts with NAD+ after being activated by catalase-peroxidase enzyme.
  9. Rifampin
    Antimycotic. Inhibits protein synthesis by targeting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
  10. Pyrazinamide
    Antimycotic. Prodrug converted to pyrazinoic acid and accumulates inside cell, lowering pH and preventing fxn of enzymes.
  11. Ethambutol
    Antimycotic. 1. Inhibits synthesis of arabinogalactam and lipoarabinomannan (components of mycobacterium cell wall) 2. inhibits enzyme arainosyl transferase --> prevents polymerization of arabinogalactam.

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