Neuro (2nd half)

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jonas112
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208892
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Neuro (2nd half)
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2013-03-24 18:39:10
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Neuro
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Neuro (2nd half)
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  1. Define the following and describe what is responsible for all of them:

    hypokinesia, bradykinesia, akinesia

    Too much suppression of the basal ganglia
    • hypokinesia: decreased amount of movement
    • bradykinesia: slowed movements
    • akinesia: absence of movement
  2. Define the following and describe what is responsible for all of them:

    dystonia, athetosis, chorea
    • dystonia: distorted positions of body parts
    • athetosis: twisting movements of body parts
    • chorea: nearly continuous involuntary movements (think of the oscillating ankle)

    too much facilitation of the basal ganglia
  3. Describe what the basal ganglia do and do not
    • do:
    • -modulate amount of movement

    • dont:
    • -play a role in stimulation-triggered movements
    • -DIRECTLY specify the muscular forces needed for a movement
    • -recieve precisely organized sensory info directly from receptors
  4. What is the role of the limbic system?
    • motivation
    • attention to relevant/interesting stimuli
    • emotional significance of sensory stimuli
  5. List the 5 areas of limbic cortex and where they are on the brain
    • Insula
  6. What are the functions of the limbic system?
    • -olfaction
    • -memory
    • -emotions/drives
    • -homeostasis
  7. What are some common behaviours associated with the limbic system?
    • -anger, sadness, lust, etc
    • -reward-related behaviours
    • -blushing, sweating, etc
    • -learning and memory
  8. What are the functions of the hippocampal formation?
    • -learning and memory
    • -declarative (factual) memory
    • -learning of emotionally/motivationally relavent events
  9. Describe the afferents and efferents of the amygdala (don't need to differentiate)
  10. What are the functions of the amygdala
    • • Emotional/motivational significance (event, object)
    • • Drive-related behaviours (defense, feeding)
    • • Subjective feelings accompanying such behaviours
    • • Appropriate behavioural response to an experience
    • • Recognizing emotions in facial expression
    • • Fear
  11. What is Horner's syndrome?
    The group of symptoms (ptosis, miosis (constricted pupil), and anhidrosis (no sweating)) that result from damage to the symp. pathways that control the eye and face.
  12. Describe the sensory descriminative aspects of pain
    • -carried out in the parietal MMA, info sent from VP nucleus
    • -location of noxious stimuli
    • -intensity of noxious stimuli
    • -a-delta more important?
  13. Describe the motivational-affective aspect of pain
    • -in prefrontal MMA or limbic system? From medial nucleus of thalamus
    • -cognitive evaluation of intensity of noxious stimuli
    • -affective component of pain perception
    • -autonomic neuro-endocrine responses
    • -C fibre mroe important?
  14. List the brainstem areas modulating pain
    • -periaquaductal grey
    • -raphe nuclei
    • -locus ceruleus
  15. What is the difference between paresthesia, dyesthesia, and allodynia
    paresthesia: includes ALL abnormal skin sensations (e.g. tingling and burning) 

    dyesthesia: all UNPLEASANT abnormal skin sensations

    allodynia: when pain is perceived for normally innocuous stimuli (e.g. light touch).
  16. Label the prefrontal cortex, unimodal somatosensory association cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex
  17. What is disinhibition?
    a shift in the balance between inhibition and excitation, which the balance being tipped in the favor of excitation. Causes more pain.
  18. List the 5 cortical areas that respond to acute pain
    • -prefrontal cortex
    • -primary somatosensory cortex
    • -secondary somatosensory cortex
    • -insular cortex
    • -anterior cingulate cortex
  19. What is long-term potentiation
    ENHANCED neurotransmission lasting minutes to hours leading to a long lasting FACILITATION in the activation of postsynaptic neurons
  20. what is descending facilitation (re. nociception)
    facilitation of nociceptive processing by supraspinal control centres. Results in the perception of increased pain intensity

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