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  1. The Woman Question
    • a.      The woman question” was catchphrase used to refer to debate over role of women in society
    •                                                               i.      19th: women inferior, dependent, and defined by family and household roles; some aspired to ideal of women from poets and writers
  2. Characterization of hte sexes
    • a.      Characterization of the sexes, based on gender defined social roles, was elevated to status of universal male and female attributes in 19th c., due to impact of Industrial Revolution on family
    •                                                               i.      Men worked outside as chief family wage earners; women left with family and paid nothing 
  3. Marriage viewed
    • a.      Marriage viewed as honorable and available career for most women
    •                                                               i.      For most women, marriage was economically needed
    • 1.      Lack of work and lower wages paid to women made it hard for them to earn a living
    • a.      Retiring to convents no longer an optionà became live-in servants
    •                                                             ii.      Most women just chose marriage
  4. Birthrates
    • a.      Birthrates dropped
    •                                                               i.      Very important factor in evolution of modern family was decline in number of offspring born to the average woman, not due to technology like condoms, which were used mostly in WWI
  5. Change in attitude
    •                                                               i.      Change in attitude that led parents to limit their number of offspring was more important
    • 1.      Change in attitude occurred in emergence of a movement to increase awareness of birth control methods, which was condemned by authorities for “depraving public morals” 
  6. 1882: Dr. Aletta Jacob
    •                                                               i.      1882: Dr. Aletta Jacob founded Europe’s first birth control clinic
    • 1.      Initially, “family planning” was suggestion of reformers who thought that the problem of poverty could be solved by reducing the number of children among the lower classes
    • a.      The practice spread quickly among the propertied classes, rather than among impoverished
  7. Middle-class family
    •                                                               i.      Family was central institution of middle-class life
    • 1.      Men provided income; women cared for house and child
    •                                                             ii.      Use of domestic servants reduced amount of time middle-class women had to spend on household work 
  8. By reducing number of children
    • 1.      At the same time, by reducing the number of children in the family, mothers devoted more time to child care and domestic leisure
    • a.      Idea that leisure should be used for constructive purposes supported and encouraged the cult of middle-class domesticity
  9. Middle-class family
    •                                                               i.      Middle-class family fostered ideal of togetherness
    • 1.      Victorians created family Christmas with tree songs, gifts
    • 2.      US: Fourth of July
    • 3.      Women learned singling, crafts, and piano for recreation
  10. Impacted children
    •                                                               i.      Impacted child raising and children’s play
    • 1.      New view of kids as unique, not small adults entitled to long childhood involved in activities with other kids their age
    • a.      Early environment in which they were raised determined how they turned out
  11. Mothers
    • 1.      Mothers most important force in protecting kids from harm
    • 2.      New games and toys, and new emphasis on knowledge
    • 3.      Sons expected to follow father’s careersà sent to schools and kept separate from the rest of society until 16/17
  12. Sport
    • a.      Sport toughened boys up and leisure: military and character building
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Boy Scouts in Britain in 1908: provided organized recreation for boys ages 12-18; adventure+ discipline of earning merit badges and ranks instilled patriotism, self-sacrifice, and masculinity
  13. Emphasis on manliness
    1.      Emphasis on manliness stemmed from military concerns and conceptions of masculinity formed during late 19th century as the middle and upper classes looked for ways to control sexual licentiousness in the form of venereal disease or prostitution
  14. Boy Scouts and The Scout Magazine
    • a.      Boy Scouts and The Scout magazine promoted an image of manliness with stories of youthful heroes who demonstrated their self-control by conquering the challenges of the wilderness
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Boy Scouts sought to reinforce Victorian and Edwardian codes of masculinity in an effort to counter the possible dangers that female domination of the home posed for male development
  15. Recreation for girls
    • 1.      Not much organized recreational activity for girls, although Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scouts, encouraged his sister to establish a girls’ division as an afterthought
    • a.      Still, most of these organizations were for middle class children, although some reformers tried to establish boys clubs for working-class youths to reform them
  16. New ideal of middle-class women
    •                                                               i.      New ideal of the middle-class woman as nurturing mother and wife who determined household atmosphere through her character, not work, wasn’t real
    • 1.      Few families in Britain, France and Germany could afford to hire servants; families had at least one
    • a.      Women were forced to work hard to maintain expected appearance of well-ordered household
  17. Middle-class wives
    • 1.      Middle class wives caught in no-win situation, for sake of advancement of husband’s career, she was expected to  maintain in public the image of the “idle” wife, freed from demeaning physical labor and able to pass her days in ornamental pursuits
    • a.      Middle class woman paid price for façade in life of unpaid work, managing budget and doing housework that couldn’t be done by just one servant
  18. working class family
    •                                                               i.      Hard work was standard for women in working class families
    • 1.      Daughters worked until married, and after
    • 2.      Children were apprentices or did odd jobs
  19. 1890-1940: changes
    •                                                               i.      1890-1940: changes in family pattern
    • 1.      High-paying jobs in heavy industry and improvements in the standard of living made it possible for working-class families to depend on income of husbands and wages of grown children
    • a.      Some mothers could afford to stay home
    • 1.      New consumer products spurred consumerism, focusing society on ever-higher levels of consumption
  20. Also limited size of families
    • 1.      Children were dependents rather than potential wage earners due to child labor laws and movement of  kids into schools
    • a.      Improvements in public health declined infant mortality rates and made fewer children possible
    • b.      Also, strikes and labor agitation led to laws that reduced work hours to ten per day and eliminated work on Saturday afternoonsà more time for kids
Card Set:
2013-03-22 16:46:22
HON 122

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