anthro-unit 2

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anthro-unit 2
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cultural anthropology unit 2
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  1. HOw does the evo-eco model allow us a micro and macro view of cultural processes?
    • The evolutionary model;  based broad sociocultural adaptations;   
    • Hunting gathering bands    
    • Horticultural and pastoral tribes    
    • Agricultural cheifdoms
    • Agricultural states based on intense
    • agriculture 
    • Evidence from archaeology

    • The ecological models;
    • view culture as “part of larger global ecological system with each aspect of
    • the system interacting with all other parts.”

    cultural ecology is the study of the processes by which a society adapts to its environment. Adaptations in behavior. Learned.

    • Optimal-foraging model; in which the goal is to understand how people gather food in such a
    • way that maximizes calories in while minimizing calories out.

    • Evo-Eco Model; This model allows anthropologists to take a macro (evolutionary)
    • and micro (ecological) view of cultural processes
  2. econommics
  3. Economics; the study of how society acquires and uses resources to
    produce foods and goods and how these are distributed and consumed.
  4. why do lithics make up most anthro evidence?
  5. Stone tools (lithics) are used in obtaining,producing,
    and distributing foods/goods
  6. three components of technology
    • Knowledge;  problem solving, social rules for
    • collaboration, ability to evaluate risk, remembering what worked/what didn’t in
    • the past.

    • Skills;
    • how people manipulate environment (behaviors)

    • Tools;
    • created through; knowledge of available raw
    • materials. Knowledge/skills to obtain raw materials. Knowledge/skills to be
    • able to manipulate raw materials into desired
  7. foraging
    • Foraging
    • is a method of gathering food that is used by all animals and some humans; is
    • simply collecting wild plants and animals.

    • Gathered foods account for up to 80% of the
    • diet, and hunting account for up to 60% of the diet.
  8. horticulture
  9. Horticulture
    • is a small scale crop production; seeds/cuttings, no soil prep, fertilizer, no
    • irrigation, no draft animals. Plant and hope it grows. Subsistence strategies
    • are adaptations to environmental stress. Given definition, what do we expect
    • for the environment? Good soil, predictable weather.
  10. Pastoralism
  11. Pastoralism;
    a subsistence strategy that focuses on herding. Animals differ by location.
  12. agriculture
    • Agriculture; the intensive continuous use of land for the
    • production of plant foods; uses one or more of the following: soil cultivation,
    • fertilization, and/or irrigation. Often see draft animals and/or machines.
    • Agriculture and urban centers go
    • hand-in-hand.
  13. three diff kinds of bands in a foraging society
    • The
    • family band; a few nuclear families that gather when resources are
    • abundant, disperse when food is scarce <50 people.
    •  
    • Land with high carrying capacity:
    •  
    • Patrilocal
    • band: all nuclear families with related makes. “better” land allow more
    • stable numbers. About 50 people.

    • Matrilocal
    • bands: all nuclear failies with related females. Stable population. About
    • 50 people. Very uncommon.
  14. three categories of reciprocity
    • people give and receive valuable items in predictable
    • way (reciprocity)

    • Generalized
    • reciprocity; everyone gives time and goods and no one keeps score

    • Usually between close family members
    • Most common foragers making foragers egalitarian (all members of the same
    • age/sex class have access to goods)
    •   
    • Balanced
    • reciprocity; exchange of time and goods and one does keep score payback is
    • expected in a reasonable amount of time.

    Usually between distant relatives/outsiders.

    • Negative
    • reciprocity; uneven exchange includes theft
    • Usually between unrelated people/outsiders
  15. how have these susistance groups changed to modern day?
    • foragers;  
    • Post contact; decreased health.
    • Pick-and-choose bits of food producer life.

    • Horticulturalist
    • and pastoralists today; lots of change. Tourism has affected their societies
    • (ex; trobriand and nuer) globalization has made it really hard to remain
    • isolated, and they have changed via diffusion.
  16. what kinds of environments would we see horticulturalists?
    good soil, isolated areas, near water
  17. what are two new systems of distribution in agriculture societies? what are the three ways to buy something in market exchange?
    • Distribution;
    • redistribution; tax is paid to a
    • central authority, which uses that tax to support itself. Surplus is then
    • redistributed in the form of roads food at parties.

    • ·     
    • Market
    • exchange; goods/services being sold at market supply an demand set price. Currency
    • is often used. Less personal but more flexible. Barter; goods and services are traded without money. Commodity money; the medium exchange
    • shells gold silver beads. The items have an agreed value. Fiat money; paper currency is backed by the legal power of the
    • nation-state and its claim of the economic value. Many ag societies function by
    • a combo of distribution and market exchange. Reciprocity is mostly a familial
    • thing.
  18. we say there a continuum of stratified societies between chiefdom and nation states what are they and what does this mean?
  19. Stratified
    • societies; people of same gender/age having unequal access to goods and
    • services. More people=more social organization. The two ends of the continuum. Chiefdom; the haves and have nots.
    • Chief and royal families have power/wealth that sets them apart. Nation states; many levels of
    • stratification.
  20. what group has the kula ring? what is it an example of? describe it and give general idea.
  21. Distribution
    • of goods; similar system but shifted emphasis from foragers. Generalized
    • reciprocity in lineages and nuclear families. Balanced with non-kin. The
    • trobriand exchange system is called kula
    • ring. Trading of goods in a clockwise/counterclockwise direction around the
    • islands.
  22. three main functions of kinship? which of the three have been taken over by government in some large societies

    wats the diff between role/status? way 2 kinds of status are there?
    1.Organize people into groups

    • 2.Function to direct peoples behavior. Certain
    • kinships are expected to act a certain way.

    • -Status;
    • a person’s relative social position within a group. 
    • --Ascribed
    • status; born into this

    • --Achieved
    • status; you earn this

    • -Role;
    • the part our society expects us to play in a given status.
    •   
    • 3.***(taken over by government) Provide
    • security for members; can be economic, help with problems
  23. do CA's focus on real or ideal when describing kinship patterns? why?
  24. When an CA describes a cultures kinship system,
    • they generally describe the ideal or
    • most common pattern. because that is the way the culture sees it as real.
  25. what is a decent group? why and how can we tie descent groups with subsistence and ownership?
    decent groups; members of a lineage can trace their consanguinal relatives back to a common blood ancestor.

    the lineage shows which relatives are important. most ownership is passed down via the descent group.
  26. what are the three main categories of descent groups?  two types of unilineal? most common form of nonlineal? two  miscellaneous?
    unilineal, nonlineal, other

    • patrilineal: 
    • descent is passed through the males.
    • All members get their lineage from their fathers
    • this lineage identity is permanent.
    • Only males pass on their lineage on to children
    • Members of a patrilineage are called agnates.
    • This is practiced in 42% of cultures worldwide.
    • 42/100 cultures.
    • Keeps property in male control.

    • matrilineal:
    • descent is passed through the females (matrilineage or unterine descent group)
    • All members get their lineage from their mothers;
    • this lineage identity is permanent.
    • Only females pass on the lineage to children.
    • Practiced in 20% of cultures worldwide.

    • *bilateral decent descent traced equally through bother maternal
    • and paternal line

    • *Double
    • descent: two separate lines of descent are recognized at the same time.
    • Somethings passed down through females some
    • other things passed through males.
    • Property passed down through different lines.

    • Ambilineal descent: everyone belongs to a unilineal descent group either through the
    • mother or the father.
    • Some choose to be matrilineal or patrilineal.
  27.  what are the three "second-level" unilineal descent group types? which practice exogamous marriage? what are segmentary lineages? where do we see these?
    what about the Nuer kinship system use terms from the book.
    • Clan;
    • is a group consisting of two or more lineages that share a common ancestor (totem) in the mythical past.

    • ·     
    • Phratry;
    • a grouping formed by two or more clans that have a ties with one another, often
    • based on a historical relationship.

    • ·     
    • Moiety;
    • seen in nonindustrialized societies; an association that divides a society in
    • half. It is inherited either through males or females. Usually marry the other
    • ·     
    • Exogamous;
    • (marry outside group) rules usually apply to the nuclear family, lineage, clan,
    • phratry, and moiety groups.

    • Segmentary lineages; much like clan and phratry,
    • seen in some large food producers, but consist of sublineages.

    Ex nuer;

    Unilineal, patrilineal descent, agnate.

    Trace to a common ancestor

    Several lineages broken into other segments

    Property is owned and passed on through males

    Traceable lineages are called mar and untraceable are called ___?
  28. what makes the term cousin special? for many north american european descent? what terminological system does this follow?
    Iraquois terminology system;

    ·    13% of societies

    ·     lineage identity is very important

    ·     ego’s nuclear family memebrs are all calledsomething original, but fa and fabr share kinship term, as do mo and mosi.

    • ·     As this system splits the family into two
    • categories, its said to bifurcate.
    • Also called bifurcate-merging
    • pattern because classes of relatives (same generation, side, and sex are called
    • he same term.)

    • ·     Terms reflect expectations and obligations. You
    • my have 3 men who are your father role.

    • ·     Ego’s parallel cousins are called by the same term for siblings. Cross cousins are different. Cross cousins may be perfect
    • marrying material
  29. what is the difference in types of cousins
    • ·     Cross cousins; children of one parents sibline of the opposite sex. Kids of mobro
    • and fasi. (mobrchi or fasich) mothers brothers children.

    • ·     Parallel;
    • children of one parents siblings of the same sex. Kids of mosi or fabr (mosich
    • or fabrch) mothers sisters children/fathers sisters children
  30. sodality? what kinds of groups do we see them? what do they make up for? example ?
    •      Humans crave connection
    • Big populations-> kin group fragmentation=
    • people associate with others based on common interest rather than residence or
    • kinship (sodality)

    ·     Formal; school, political party, religion

    ·     Informal; book club, gym class, 
  31. what are the three basic kinship terminological systems that we discussed and what percentages of cultures practice each? which is said to "lump" kin according to sex/generation? which has a focus on the nuclear family and neolocality?  which is said to show a bifurcate/bifurcate-merging pattern?
    • Inuit
    • terminology system; 7% of societies

    • ·     
    • Focus is on the nuclear family and each member
    • is given a different name.

    • ·     
    • Neolocal
    • residence; new families settle outside of their parents homes.

    • ·     
    • Kin outside the nuclear family are lumped in a
    • way that we are familiar with; uncle aunt grandparents.

    Iraquois terminology system;

    • ·     
    • 13% of societies

    • ·     
    • lineage identity is very important

    • ·     
    • ego’s nuclear family memebrs are all called
    • something original, but fa and fabr share kinship term, as do mo and mosi.

    • ·     
    • As this system splits the family into two
    • categories, its said to bifurcate.
    • Also called bifurcate-merging
    • pattern because classes of relatives (same generation, side, and sex are called
    • he same term.)

    • ·     
    • Terms reflect expectations and obligations. You
    • my have 3 men who are your father role.

    • ·     
    • Ego’s parallel cousins are called by the same
    • term for siblings. Cross cousins are different. Cross cousins may be perfect
    • marrying material.

    • ·     
    • Ex; Yanomamo; for male ego, fisida and mobrda
    • are called suaboya(wife) cross cousin. And fasiso and mobrso are called
    • soriwa(brother in law)

    Hawaiian terminology system;

    • ·     
    • 18% of societies. Lump relatives based on sex
    • and generation. Older generations are your auntie or uncle. Male to male in
    • same generation is bra.

    • ·     
    • No strong sense of unilineal descent
  32. what is an ego. know all symbols
    ego; the person in perspective in a kinship chart.

    • circle= female
    • triangle=male
    • square=individual no sex
    • = marriage
    • lines connect blood relationship
    • circle/triangle with a slash through it is a dead person
    • non= is divorsed
    • dashed == means they were living as if married but not legally married.
  33. what is exogamous marriage and why would a culture use it?
    • Exogamous;
    • (marry outside group) rules usually apply to the nuclear family, lineage, clan,
    • phratry, and moiety group.
    • This helps kids to be healthy, extend territory,
    • forge political alliances and facilitate trade.
  34. what is endogamous. why do cultures use this?
    Endogamous; (marrying within group and/or species at least

    Usually apply to religion ethnic, group, clans…

    Helps maintain cultural identity, less disagreement.

    • What is a
    • group? Collection of individuals
  35. What are some rules for marriage if a spouse dies?
    o Levirate; if womans husband dies, she will marry his brother. (40% of societies.)

    o Sororate; if a mans wife dies, he marries her sister. (51%)

    o Many societies view marriages based on love as “abnormal” and less strong. (60% divorce rate) o Marriage is for economic protection maintain family alliances
  36. why do all societies have marriage ceremonies? what two things change when someone gets married?
    • All societies have marriage ceremonies, because both status and role change in one day.
  37. what three features supposedly unite marriages? are there exceptions
    • • Much diversity but some patterns; 1) exclusive sexual relationship. (MEN MAY VIOLATE THIS) 2) dome degree of economic dependency
    • •3) Legitimizes kids; in eye of the groups
  38. what are the three forms of marriage?
    what is one modification of monogamy we see in america? three forms of polygamy? use percentages of cultures.
    • • Monogamy; one man and one woman. Most common form of marriage because of western ideals. Preferred in 20% of cultures.
    • • Serial monogamy; one person at a time but many over a lifetime. Death or divorce

    • • Polygamy; marriage with many spouses (non sex specific)
    • • Polygyny; one man multiple wives. (gyny=women, like gynycologist) 79% societies prefer this form of marriage. Expensive! Men support women. Not all 79% can afford multiple wives.
    • • Polyandry; one woman multiple men (anrgogens=men) 1% cultures practice this. Due to culture with shortage of woman because of female infanticide (killing girl babies). Economic reasons.

    • Group marriage; multiple females and males. Only one society. Kaingang of brazil, where only part of the society (8%) practiced it in history. Or Hippie groups

    • Same sex marriage; monogamous or polygamous. This is not a new thing. Homosexuality is as old as sex itself. And same sex marriage is as old as marriage itself.

    • Sister exchange marriage; cross cousin marriages which creates male cousins exchanging sisters as marriage partners. This is not always possible about half get to do this.
  39. what are the three types of mate choice? when do we see them. what is most common and why?
    • • Chosen freely; little influence by outsiders. Or subject to parental approval.
    • • Chosen by parents; with very little influence by the person to be married
    • • Arranged marriage is most common. Focus on large kin groups
    • • Multigenerational households.
  40. what four features traditionally unite family across cultures? we are now concerned with the functions of family instead of features. what are the two we discussed?
    • • Family of orientation; enculturation takes place. Family you are born or adopted into.
    • • Consanguinal relatives; blood relations
    • • Family of procreation; parent or potential parent.
    • • Affinal kin; kin by marriage
    • • Kinship system; consanguinal and affinal kin
    • • Extended family; 2+ nuclear families that are related to each other by blood and live in the same house. Usually eldest man or woman is in charge and 50% of societies view this as ideal. Not always generational, sometimes siblings.
    • • Household; a common residence based economic unit. Kin or non-kin.
  41. discuss the nayar and why they are an exception to the most common form of marriage
    they nayar of india have exceptions to all three common ideals of marriage (exclusive sexual relationship, financial interdependency, and legitimizing children). One woman may have multiple lovers as the men are rarely home because of war duties. the only financial obligation is in the beginning of the male/female establishment of a sexual relationship he gives her family three gifts, or if a man claims a child he will give the mom one gift. that is all.
  42. what is the difference between affinal kin, fictive kin, and consanguine kin.
    ·     Consanguinal relatives; blood relations

    ·     Affinal kin; kin by marriage

    fictive kin; relative you make to be family but is not related by blood
  43. what is the diff between family of orientation and procreation?
    • • Family of orientation; enculturation takes place. Family you are born or adopted into.
    • • Family of procreation; parent or potential parent.
  44. what constitutes an extended family? what constitutes  a household?
    • • Extended family; 2+ nuclear families that are related to each other by blood and live in the same house. Usually eldest man or woman is in charge and 50% of societies view this as ideal. Not always generational, sometimes siblings.
    • • Household; a common residence based economic unit. Kin or non-kin.
  45. what kinds of societies allow diverse? how has divorce changed the terms we use to describe marriage?
    • • Divorce is the cause of many variants
    • • Many societies allow divorce, even preliterate.
  46. what are the 6 main residence patterns?
    • • Neolocal residence; new. Married couples set up a new household away from parents. Preferred in 7% of societies.
    • • Economic independence; and privacy
    • • Most often in industrialized societies due to moving for jobs.
    • • Patrilocal/Virilocal residence; married coupl goes and lives with grooms father and his family in their house, or on grooms fathers property, or in village of grooms father. (58% of cultures)
    • • This creates alliances between groups
    • • Often seen in patrilineal descent.
    • • Connections to internal warfare and patrilocality. Fathers and sons remain together to fight in war. Ex. Yonomamo
    • • Matrilocal/uxorical residence; married couple lives with the brides mother, on property or in village. (15%) and seen in matrilineal decent. Serves economic function.
    • • Connection between external warfare and matrilocaloity
    • • Men leave to fight a different group and must be away from home for a long time. Ex. Hopi
    • • Matrifocal; mother and kids live in a home without husband. Family and residence pattern • Avunculocal; new couple lives with grooms moms brother. Seen in small sedentary societies(3%) property goes through females (matrilineal decent) but males help manage resources for their sisters ex; Chamorro
    • • Bilocal/ambilocal residence; new couple lives with either the grooms parents or brides parents (usually dependent on economics) sometimes otherwise patrilocal societies with no sons, so we borrow a son-in-law. Practiced by 7% of cultures ex; !kung
    • • Matri-patrilocal residence; an interim residence pattern in societies with bridewealth payment.
    • • Grooms goes to brides family for a time and works, but then they move to live with grooms family. Ex; yuit
  47. what is matrifocal residence and how is it different from matrilocal residence ?
    • • Matrilocal/uxorical residence; married couple lives with the brides mother, on property or in village. (15%) and seen in matrilineal decent. Serves economic function.
    • • Connection between external warfare and matrilocaloity
    • • Men leave to fight a different group and must be away from home for a long time. Ex. Hopi
    • • Matrifocal; mother and kids live in a home without husband. Family and residence pattern
  48. what are the differences between supernatural and natural forces cross culturally?
    • Supernatural=according to the emic perspective things beyond observable, natural world;
    • things we cant explain/test; things that involve faith. Non-scientific.
  49. why do people develop belief systems? (psychological and social reasons)

    the 5 functions?
    • • Cohesion and support; support individuals and groups. Physically for rituals and ceremonies people will be supported during hard times. This makes people feel united by common beliefs and outward symbols indicate affiliation. Ex; Dani from new guinea and cremation of bodies. It helps unite group and remind people involved that when they die their body will be in a ceremony.
    • • Education and discipline; teaching of religious history, guidelines for behavior. Set up punishments. Ex; ten commandments of judeo-christian belief.
    • • Revitalization and euphoria; regular repeated rituals lift people spirits. Ex; Mbuti pygmies of the congo and the molimo. song sang to wake up forest nicely and boost confidence of the group for successful hunting.
    • • Ecology; any belief or ritual that is connected with the environment in some way. Ex; Christians belief God gave man earth. Ex; Hindus in India and perception of cows. Hindus don’t worship cows they are just sacred animals because they fertilize the land.
    • • Explanation; reasons for life, death, good, evil. It is comforting to know how/why things happen. Ex; cosmic justice, karma, everything happens for a reason. Ex; creationism how we got here.
  50. what are supernatural beings (in general) ? what are the 6 kinds of supernatural beings discussed in the book? what are they believed to do?
    • Types of Belief: Supernatural Beings;
    • • Gods/goddesses; usually ancestral. Usually have spent time on earth with humans on earth. Emotional connections to them. They give us rules for proper life. Such as following the 10 commandments.
    • • Two kinds of systems;
    • • polytheistic many gods/goddesses have equal power but different. Sometimes contain one with more power.

    • Monotheistic has one super God with all the power. Sometimes have mini gods.

    Demons; seen in systems with gods. Powerful and evil. Tempt people into doing crimes or immoral acts. They can change form and trick humans. Give humans an out- “the devil made me do it” usually fully responsible for all of the bad things that happen to humans.

    Souls; the supernatural part/conciousness of humans and some animals that persist after death. Some sort of life force that adds to our personality. Gods give humans their souls. Ex; yanomamo and the three part soul; one will die when the person dies, one goes to eternal happiness, the other wanders the forest forever. Keeps kids from going into the forest at night. Ex; tardy souls; a baby born without a soul yet. Mostly found in religions with a high infant mortality rate. Ex; Berawan and timing rules- the soul needs time to mature, after death to turn into a ghost. Stay away from is so the soul can be released to the after life.

    Ghosts; the soul after the body has died. Can cause harm to people. We hold rituals to send ghosts off so they don’t botter us. Sage burning, and séances.

    Tricksters; supernatural beings that play jokes or tricks on us they are more annoying than helpful. Can serve as a bad role model for kids. Ex; Don’t be greedy life coyote.

    Witches; usually female. Negative supernatural beings. Never admit to being a witch. Used to keep ladies in line by claiming them witches. Not from modern day wiccans.
  51. what are the two main types of supernatural forces and are they good bad or neutral?
    • Supernatural
    • forces; forces usually neutral, cant be seen or felt. Can be harnessed by
    • people (but one needs training before they can effectively tap these forces)
  52. what are frizzers two main types of magic. what category is voodoo?
    • Frazer’s law of sympathy; magic depends on the association or agreement between
    • things. 1- law of similarity (imitative
    • magic) things that are alike are the same. 2- Law of contagion (contagious magic)- things that were once in
    • contact continue to be in contact after the connection is severed. Ex; voodoo
    • dolls have hair from person.
  53. how is magic like science?
    it uses error and trial.
  54. what do supernatural practitioners do in general?
    • Supernatural practitioners; people who address the problems and offer
    • explanations.
  55. how are shaman identified?pt/ft? how do they connect with sn world? what do they do?
    Shaman; acts as doctors, mediators, and therepists.

    Part-timers; Shaman (emic) have been supernaturally chosen to be mediums.

    • Identification; unique survivability, personality disorders, diversity in sexuality.
    • Differences are positive because the person was chosen. They can be trained by
    • existing shaman and can have a special ability that cannot be passed on.

    Make contact by; drugs, dreams, music. Specifically drumming.

    • What do they do; use local plants, highly suggestive, heal, move
    • spirits, create set of behavioral rules, and can be used as a scapegoat. If
    • something negative happens the person to blame is the shaman
  56. how are priests identified? and what kinds of societies are they found in?
    • Priest; are part of a centralized authority, usually in a society with agriculture because
    • of the associated political organizations.

    • Full timers; perform specific rituals on particular days or seasons (in specific
    • locations0 are taught by other priests.

    • Identified by their training; they have learned the trade, cannot be born into it.
    • Often diff. levels in the priesthood. Sometimes chiefs/kings are also priests.

    What they do; perform rituals to harvest, weather control, marriage.
  57. what are rituals what do they do?
    • Ritual; behaviors that are formalized, repeated regularly, and contains sumbolic content. Connects natural with humans and supernatural world.
    • • Two main categories;
    • • Rites of passage; focus on individuals culturally defined biological and social phases. Can split these rituals into three phases.
    • • 1-separation; removed from group
    • • 2-transition; change occurring to the individual.
    • • 3- reincorporation; bring person back into group and recognized changed status. Rites of intensification; focus on group solidarity, values of the culture, and social/political relationships. Often seasonal. Ex; dia de los muertos.
  58. rites of passage. when do they occur? why?
    • • Rites of passage; focus on individuals culturally defined biological and social phases. Can split these rituals into three phases.
    • • 1-separation; removed from group
    • • 2-transition; change occurring to the individual.
    • • 3- reincorporation; bring person back into group and recognized changed status.
  59. rites of intensification; group or individual? when and why?
    • Rites of
    • intensification; focus on group solidarity, values of the culture, and
    • social/political relationships. Often seasonal. Ex; dia de los muertos.
  60. what are revitalization movements? when and why? how are profits involved?
    • Revitalization movements (RM)- a movement that forms in an attempt to deliberately bring about change in a society.
    • • Often occur to direct response to imperialism. And lead by a prophet- a regular human selected supernaturally to lead.
    • • Goal is to get back to traditional lifeways or to improve life.

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