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  1. Education in the Mass Society
    • a.      Mass education was product of mass society
    •                                                               i.      Being educated meant attending secondary school or university
    • 1.      Secondary schools emphasized Classical education based on study of Greek and Latin
    • 2.      Usually for elite, nobles, wealthy, government until 1850, when expanded to middle class families
  2. Beginning of 19th
    •                                                               i.      At beginning of 19th: little interest in primary education
    • 1.      Only in German states was there a state-run system for it
    • 2.      1833: French government created system of state-run secular schools by instructing local government to establish an elementary school for both sexes
    • a.      None required attendance, but children still expected to work in fields; so their attendance was irregular
  3. after 1870
    • a.      After 1870, functions of state extended to development of mass education in state-run systems
    •                                                               i.      Most western governments began to offer at least primary education to both boys and girls between six and twelve
  4. In most countries
    • 1.      In most countries, it was not optional
    • a.      Austria had established free, compulsory elementary education
    • b.      France: 1882 law made primary education compulsory for all children between six and thirteen
  5. Britain
    • a.      Britain made it compulsory, but Parliament made act that brought all elementary schools under county and town control
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      States also assumed responsibility for the quality of teachers by creating teacher-training schoolsà state-financed primary schools, salaried and trained teachers, and free, compulsory elementary education for the masses
  6. Why were they so committed to education?
    •                                                               i.      Education important to personal and social improvement and also sought to supplant Catholic education with moral and civic training based on secular values
    •                                                             ii.      Even conservatives were attracted to mass education as a means of improving the quality of military recruits and training people in social discipline 
  7. Another reason
    •                                                               i.      Another reason: industrialization
    • 1.      Unskilled labor was sufficient to meet factory needs, but the new firms of the Second Industrial Revolution demanded skilled labor
    • a.      Both boys and girls with an elementary education had new possibilities of jobs beyond their villages or small towns, including white-collar jobs, etc.
    • b.      Mass education furnished the trained workers they needed
  8. Chief motive
    •                                                               i.      Chief motive was political
    • 1.      Expansion of voting rights necessitated a more educated electorate
    • a.      Mass compulsory education instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses, providing even greater national integration
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Nationalism supplied a new faith
    • 1.      Single national language: unity
  9. Motives determined
    •                                                               i.      Motives determined what was taught
    • 1.      Indoctrination in national values took on great importance
    • a.      At core of academic curriculum were reading, writing, arithmetic, history, etc.
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Education of boys and girls varied
  10. Sexes
    • 1.      Sexes were separated
    • a.      Girls did less math and no science; instead: sewing, washing, ironing, cooking
    • b.      Boys taught carpentry ad military drills
    • 2.      Also taught virtues of hard work, thrift, etc. 
  11. Female teachers
    •                                                               i.      2/3 of all teachers by 1880s
    • 1.      Many men viewed teaching of children as extension of women’s natural role as nurturers of children
    • 2.      Females were paid lower salaries, in itself a considerable incentive for governments to encourage the establishment of teacher-training institutes for women
  12. First colleges
    • a.      First colleges for women were teacher-training schools
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Barbara Bodichon, a pioneer in the development of female education, established her own school where girls were trained for economic independence as well as domesticity
    •                                                             ii.      Not until beginning of 20th were women permitted to enter the male-dominated universities
  13. Literacy and Newspapers
    •                                                               i.      Result of mass educationà increase in literacy
    • 1.      Germany, Great Britain, France, Scandinavia: adult illiteracy was eliminated
    • 2.      Areas with less schooling had high adult illiteracy rates, like 78% in Romania who, as well as others, had only a minimal investment in compulsory mass education
  14. With incresae in literacy
    •                                                               i.      With increase in literacy came rise of mass-circulation newspapers, such as evening News and Daily Mail in London
    • 1.      Known as “yellow press” in the US, these newspapers shared some common characteristics
    • a.      Written in easily understood manner and tended toward sensational
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      These tabloids provided details of crimes, diatribes, gossip, and sports news
  15. Other forms of cheap lit
    •                                                               i.      Other forms of cheap lit: specialty magazines and women’s magazines began in 1860s
    • 1.      Pulp fiction: extremely popular westerns with innumerable variations on conflicts between cowboys and Indians
    • II.                Mass Leisure
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2013-03-22 20:53:34
HON 122

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