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Name/Describe the 3 Anatomical Planes.
- Saggittal Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
Frontal Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves.
Transverse Plane - An imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves.
Positioned near the middle of the body
Positioned towards the outside of the body
Positioned of the opposite side of the body
Positioned on the same side of the body
Make a mental image of the 4 Planes
Positioned above a point of reference
Positioned below a point of reference
Positioned nearest the center of the body
Positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference.
Describe: Anterior (or Ventral)
Positioned on the front of the body
Positioned on the back of the body
Make a mental image of:
5) Anterior (or Ventral)
The Sagittal plane includes which 3 movements?
- 1. Flexion
- 2. Extension
- 3. Hyperextension
A bending movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments decreases
A straightening movement in which the relative angle between two adjacent segments increases
Extension of a joint beyond the normal limit of ROM
Sagittal Plane Motion/Axis/Example's
Forward and Back movements
- Motion: Flextion/Extentision
- Axis: Coronal
- Exercises include:
- 1) Biceps Curl
- 2) Triceps Pushdowns
- 3) Squat
- 4) Front Lunge
- 5) Calf Raise
- 6) Walking/Running
- 7) Vertical Jumping
- 8) Climbing stairs
The Frontal plane includes which 2 movements?
Abduction and Adduction
A movement in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
A movement in the frontal plane towards the midline of the body
Frontal Plane Motion/Axis/Examples
1) abduction/adduction ---?
2) Lateral Flexion --- ?
3) Eversion/inversion --- ?
- NOT front to back movements
- Side to side movements
- Exercises include:
- 1) abduction/adduction --- Side lateral raise
- 2) Lateral Flexion --- Side lung
- 3) Eversion/inversion --- side shuffle
The Transverse plane includes which 4 movements?
- Internal Rotation
- External Rotation
- Horizontal Abduction
- Horizontal Adduction
Rotation of a joint towards the middle of the body
Rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
Movement of the arm of thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position
Movement of the arm of thigh in the transverse plane from an lateral position to a anterior position
Transverse Plane Motion/Axis/Examples
- Rotational Movement
- Diagonal Movements
- Exercises include:
- 1) Trunk rotation
- 2) Throwing
- 3) Golfing
- 4) Swinging a bat
Name the 4 Scapular Motions:
Give definitions of each
Scapular Rotation: Abduction of the scapula; shoulder blades move toward the midline
Scapular Protraction: Adduction of the scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline
Scapular Depression: Downward (inferior) motion of the scapula
Scapular Elevation: Upward (superior) motion of the scapula
Name the 3 primary types of muscle action:
- Isotonic: (contant muscle tension)
Isometric: (constant muscle length)
Isokinetic: (constant velocity of motion)
Force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion.
An eccentric muscle action occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening.
- Moving in the same direction as force
- Decelerates or reduces force
When a muscle is exerting force greater than the resistive force, resulting in shortening of the muscles
- -Moving in opposite direction of the force
- -Accelerates of produces force
When a muscle is exerting force equal to the force being placed on it leading to no visible change in the muscle length.
- No visible movement with or against resistance
- Dynamically stabilizes force
When a muscle shortens at a constant speed over the full range of motion
- The speed of movement is fixed, and resistance varies with the force extended
- Requires sophisticated training equipment often seen in rehabilitation of exercise physiology laboratories
An influence applied by one object to another, which results in acceleration or deceleration of the second object.
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
Muscle Groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
Movement of the bones and joints around them
- Force that produces rotation
- Common unit of torque is the newton-meter or NM
HMS response to internal/external environment stimuli
How the CNS integrates internal/external sensory info with previous experiences to produce a motor response
Utilization of motor control process through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in one's capacity to produced skilled movement.
The change in motor skill behavior over time throughout the lifespan
Groups of muscle that are recruited by the CNS to produce movement
The cumulative sensory input to the CNS from all mechanoreceptors that sense the body position and limb movement
Ability of the nervous system to gather and interpret sensory info and to select and execute the proper motor response
The use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning
Information provided form internal source (within the body)
Information provided form external source (outside of the body)