MIC 541-Lecture 24
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Actinomycetes are similar to:
bacteria and fungi
Actinomycetes are a small group (T/F)?
False, they are a large group
Characteristics of Actinomycetes are:
- Form branches or filaments called hyphae
- procaryotic wall
- susceptible to penicillin
- infections mimic fungal
Infections of Actinomycetes resemble that of what other microbe?
Branches or filaments on Actinomycetes are called:
Penicillin is effective against Actinomycetes (T/F)?
Actinomycetes are sometimes also called:
Actinomycetes give off what type of smell when composted?
Actinomycetes primarily are designed to do what in nature?
Primary decomposition = Decompose woody stems, newspaper and bark
Actinomycetes are usually found where?
- in the soil
- especially high pH/alkaline and drier soils
the rate at which Actinomycetes are found in the soil is:
1/4 pound per Cu Ft.
Actinomycetes comprise what percent of teh soils bacterial composition?
The most numerous of all actinomycetes is:
Streptomyces is the primary source of what?
antibiotics used in topical antibiotic creams
Actinomycetes usually stain:
Actinomycosis is caused by:
Actinomyces israelii (and others)
Actinomycosis israelii causes what disease?
Actinomycosis is diagnosed by:
- examination of pus for white or yellow granules
- Gram stain
- Look for filimentous culture
Actinomycosis Cervicofacial occurs in what areas:
lower jaw abscesses, sinus tracts that reach the skin
Actinomycosis Thoracic occurs where?
lung, extended cervicofacial
Actinomycosis Abdomindal occurs where?
intestines or abdominal wall
Actinomyces Gental usually occurs due to:
Actinomyces Genital causes what symptom?
Which type of Actinomycosis of Anctinomyces israelii is most common?
Actinomyces treatment is:
- surgical removal of damaged tssue prior to anitbiotics (prerequisite)
- 3-4 weeks of Penicillin G
- 2nd line = trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (more rapid cure)
What is the second choice pharmaceutical treatment regimen for Actinomycosis?
trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole
Penicillin is the fastest route to curing Actinomycosis (T/F)?
False, the second line drugs trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are faster.
How many weeks should a patient be treated with Penicillin G for Actinomycosis?
Nocardiosis is caused by what Actinomyces species?
Norcardia asteroides (and others)
Nocardiosis is found in what type of patients?
- taking steroids
Symptoms of Nocardosis are:
- nodular abcess in skin or soft tissue
- sinus tracts extend to deep muscle and bone (called actinomycetoma)
Nocardosis infections are transferred via:
inhalation or introduction to traumatized tissue.
Actinomycetoma is a:
sinus tract that extends into deep muscle and bone
Diagnosis of Nocardosis is via:
- Microscopic appearance (granules/filaments)
- biochemical tests (casein hydrolysis+, urea hydrolysis + and tyrosine hydrolysis +)
Actinomycetes are gram positive and:
Acid fast stain will stain Actinomycete:
Purple or pink
The main factors for aquiring nocardosis are:
weakened immune system or chronic lung disease
People with what treatments or diseases are more suseptible to norcoidosis?
- Chronic steroid therapy
- surgical debridement
- Treat with cotrimazole or sulfadiazine (may need treatment for several months)
What is an important factor in treating Actinomycete infections:
System infections of actinomycetes are very treatable (T/F)
False, they are poorly treatable.
Actinomycetes can cause what dental issue?
Dental plaques are caused by which Actinomyces?
Actinomyces viscosus attached where in teh body?
The dental enamel surface
ho does Actinomyces viscosus attach to enamel?
pili and extracellular polysaccharides
How does Actinomyces viscosus destroy teeth?
sugar consuption feeds the bacteria causing acid production.
What happens if plaque is not removed from enamel?
- inflammation of the gums
- destruction of bone
Visual signs of Actinomyces viscosus plaque damage:
- Pockets between teeth roots and gums
- Calculus on teeth
- Bleeding gums
- Bone resorption
The earliest took colonizers are:
Actinomyces adhere to the tooth usually after what other bacteria?
Legionella Species cause what disease?
Bartonell species cause what disease?
cat scratch disease
Eikenella corrodens causes what disease?
Human bite wound
Legionella is named due to what?
American Legion Convention in Philly (1976) had a huge outbreak
Legionella pneumonophila stains G+ or - ?
Legionella pneumophila is what shape?
Legionella pneumophila is classified metabolically as:
Legionella pneumophila is found intracellularly or extracellularly?
Legionella pneumophila produces what toxin?
cytotoxin is produced by what bacteria?
Legionalla pneumophila is found where in nature?
Legionella pneumophila attached to what objects?
pipes, rubber and plastics
Are legionella pneumophila found in chlorinated water?
No, gobbled by amoeba
Can Legionella pneumophila be transferred human to human?
Legionella is usually transferred to humans by:
Predisposition to Legionaires disease is caused by:
- underlying illness
- old age
What percent of those infected with Legionella pneumophila have predisposing factors?
Diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila infection
- culture from sputum or lung on BYCE agar
- direct flourescent antibody tests
- indirect flourescent antibody tests
- radioimmunoassay of urine
BYCE agar is also known as:
buffered yeast charcoal extract
What type of media should the sputum of those suspect to have Legionaire's Disease be incubated on?
BYCE - buffered yeast charcoal extract
Bartonella includes how many species?
How many bartonella species cause disease in humans?
Bartonella stain Gram + or - ?
Bartonella are what shape?
Bartonella metabolism is:
Bartonella growth requirements are:
fastidious (need to be accurate)
Bartonella resovoirs are:
Bartonella vectors are:
Bartonella henselae causes what disease?
Cat scratch Disease
Cat Scratch disease is caused by what bacteria?
Cat scratch Disease is associated with:
scratches bites and cat fleas
Symptoms of Cat Scratch Disease are:
Chronic regional swelling of lymph nodes
Culture for Bartonella is the best way to diagnose (T/F)?
False, culture is often negative
The best way to diagnose Cat Scratch fever is:
View organisms on tissue sections
Treatment of Bartonell infections includes:
antibiotics: tetracycline, erythrimycinand rifampin
Eikenella infections are associated with:
human bite wounds and fist fights
Which bacterial infection is associated with human bite wounds and fist fights?
Eikenella infections may lead to:
sinusitis, brain abscesss, pneumonia and endocarditis
A slow growing fastidious organism that corrodes agar is likely:
Eikenella grows at what relative speed?
Eikenella is naturally a pathogen (T/F)?
False it is an opportunist
Whatis a photochromogen?
ability to produce pigemnt in lighted conditions
Whatis the environmental form of chlamydia?
nChlamydophila psittaci - Group B
What causes relapsing fever?
Sequential Borrelia hermsii infections by mutagen strains
Whatis the BEST method to diagnose primary syphilis?
benzathine penicillin G = 2.4 millionunits IM in a single dose
Whatare axial fibrils?
motile filiments that insert at each end of a spirochete, overlap in the middle and twist around it.
Identify characteristics of the pathogenic actinomycetes.
- Gram positive
- Acid fast
- attack those iwt hweakend immune system or lung issues
- cause dental plaques
What are the major characteristics of Actinomyces israelii.
- creates white or yello granules in pus
- Gran positive
- filementous culture
- susceptable to penicillin
Identify the bacterium responsible for legionellosis and the environmental conditions where it exists.
Legionella pneumonophila, live in water pipes, plastic bags and rubber
Describe the pathology of legionellosis.
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