ICT Section 3

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ICT Section 3
2013-03-22 17:57:27

spreadsheets and database
Show Answers:

  1. Answer the following...
    A) What is a text string?
    B) in what orders and to what can you sort the data in a spreadsheet?
    A text string is a piece of data entered into a cell in a spread sheet. 

    You can sort data both in rows and columns, either in ascending or descending order!
  2. Whilst entering data into a spreadsheet how could data be entered?
    You can directly, enter the data into the cell and edit it using the formula bar.

    However, you can also control the amount of data you enter by using drop down lists, tick boxes and radio buttons.
  3. Whilst formatting a spreadsheet, the text can flow in one line. However to avoid this you can use (1)...... and the negatives are (2)....
    (1) Text wrap because it makes sure that when the text reaches the end of the cell it starts a new line and the negatives are (2) that the cell becomes wider making the entire row wider and this could be very annoying.
  4. What is a formula?

    use the keywords below in your explanation:
    program, instructions, cell and process.
    A formula is a simple computer program which gives instructions to the computer to process data in a cell.
  5. Explain the following?
    a) relational cell reference
    b) absolute cell reference (mention $)
    a) relational cell reference means that the cells involved in the calculation of a formula changes

    b) absolute cell reference is when the answer is an outcome of one cell that never changes - same throughout the formula or formulas if it has been duplicated. To show that a cell is an absolute cell reference then it would have a $ sign before each coordinate in the cell reference.
  6. There are 9 functions. Name and give brief explanation for each!
    • a. SUM - this adds all the numbers
    • b. AVERAGE - this finds the mean average from the data set.
    • c. ROUND - this rounds data to specified number of decimal places.
    • d. ROUNDUP - this rounds the number only up
    • e. MAX - finds the maximum number in a cell range
    • f. MIN - finds the minimum values in a cell range.
    • g. RANK - this finds the position of a number in a cell range, after it has been sorted in ascending or descending order.
    • h. COUNT - this counts the number of cells that contains only numbers
    • i. IF - this finds if data matches a condition; results depend on match either being true or false.
  7. Explain the LOOKUP function :)
    The LOOKUP function finds and displays information from a table in another part of the spreadsheet.
  8. What does BOOLEAN mean?
    This is a data type. The data entered could only have two responses - e.g. yes/no or 0/1.
  9. Give three reasons why a spreadsheet makes a  good model...
    1. it uses formulas and makes calculations easier. In addition, if the data in one cell changes the amount presented as a result of the formula would be altered automatically. 

    The input value would be processed to effect the outcome. 

    2. you can use a spreadsheet to carry out a what-if analysis - when the user changes the input to see the effects on the outcome.

    3. you could use charts and graphs to present data and make comparisons and it makes predictions easier too.
  10. What does the <> sign mean?
    This means it doesn't equal to!
  11. How many filters can you use in one go?
    More than one!!!
  12. What are wildcards? - give two examples...
    Wildcards are used in (query) searches when the user doesn't know the complete word but some characters of it (1st example is the * sign).

    The user can also use the ? sign to enter one character.
  13. What is validation and verification?

    (Give some examples for validation- at least 5)
    • Validation is a automatic computer check which makes sure the data entered is suitable and appropriate. Examples are...
    • 1. length check - checks data isn't too long or too short; can be used with our postcodes. 
    • 2. presence check - makes sure data is entered
    • 3. format check / input masks - these makes sure data is incorrect format; date may be excepted in the format DD/MM/YYYY 
    • 4. range check - checks that range falls between a specified range; the entry to a secondary school is for the age range 11-16. 
    • 5. lists - this means that data could be selected from a list only.
    • 6. digit check - this looks if some digits match the format; it may check the first and last two to validate a national insurance number. 

    • Verification makes sure the data entered matches the original source; two types...
    • 1. double entry - meaning typing a response twice to match the original one. 
    • 2. proof reading - against the original one to make sure they match - time consuming and costly.
  14. Complete the gap in full sentences:

    _ _ _ _ database allows the user to specify which _ _ _ _ _ _ to display in the database view. 

    You can format a report, you can use _ _ _ _ _, footers, _ _ _ _ _ _ _, and to alter font sizes. However, if the options are minimal you can export it into a word processor or a _ _ _ _ _ _ _  P_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ software, where there are more options.
    Most, fields, color, headers, desktop publishing
  15. Reports can be presented in two different formats. What are they?
    1. Record - format displays one record each time and it is good for displaying each record separately. 

    2. column-format displays all records in a table under a field name. This is beneficial for comparing data (/costs).
  16. How can you make a report more presentable?

    How many reports from how many tables is possible?
    a. you can make calculations; as an example you can find total income from a weeks sales. 

    b. you can use charts and graphs

    You can create one report from many tables and fields, or may prefer to create many reports from one table - the database tools are flexible.