Motor Learning Test 2

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Motor Learning Test 2
2013-03-22 18:37:57
motor learning kinesiology

Chapters 3 and 4 from Motor Learning and Performance Vocabulary for test 2
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  1. Exteroception
    sensory information that comes primarily from sources outside a person's body, primarily vision and smell
  2. Propriception
    sensory information that comes primarily from sources in the muscles and joints from bodily movements
  3. Interoception
    sensory information arising from within the body, such as hunger andthirst
  4. Kinesthesis
    sensory information coming from the motor system that signalscontractions and limb contractions; similar to proprioception.
  5. Vestibular Apparatus
    proprioceptive sense organs located in the inner ear that provideinformation about posture, balance, and movements of the head
  6. Muscle Spindles
    sensory receptors located in the muscles that provide the nervous system with information about changes in muscle length
  7. Golgi tendon organs
    proprioceptive sense organs located in the junction of muscles and tendons that signal information about force in the muscles
  8. Cutaneous receptors
    proprioceptive sense organs located in most skin areas that signal information about pressure, temperature, and touch
  9. Human Factors
    a field of study concerned with the interaction of human characteristics and the design of machines or instruments used by people
  10. Comparator
    the error-detection mechanism contained in closed-loop control systems; compares feedback of the desired state to feedback of theactual state
  11. Executive
    one of the components of a closed-loop control system; determines the actions necessary to maintain the desired goal state
  12. Effector
    the component of a control system that carries out the desired action for example, the arm is usually the effector that carries outthe action of throwing a ball
  13. Feedback
    information produced from the various sensors as a consequence of moving; sometimes called response-produced feedback
  14. Closed-loop Control:
    a type of control that involves the use of feedback and the activityof error detection and correction processes to maintain the desired state; used by people to control slow, deliberate movements
  15. Error Detection
    the capability of individuals to evaluate their own performance
  16. Feedforward
    information about the intended action or a copy of the expected feedback generated before the action begins
  17. Model
    a tentative description (or an analogy) of a system that captures many of its known properties; models facilitate understanding of systems and promote practical applications
  18. Controlled Processing:
    a type of information processing that is slow and sequential,attention demanding, and voluntary; more prevalent during the early stages of learning
  19. Tracking:
    a class of tasks in which a moving track must be followed, typically by movements of a manual control
  20. Reflexes
    stereotyped, involuntary, automatic, and usually rapid responses to stimuli
  21. Electromyography (EMG)
    a method for recording the electrical activity in a muscle or group of muscles
  22. M1 Response:
    the monosynaptic stretch reflex, with a latency of 30-50 ms
  23. Hick's Law
    law describing the stable relationship that exists between the number of stimulus-response alternatives and choice reaction time;specifically, as the logarithm of the number of stimulus-response pairs increase, choice reaction time increases linearly
  24. M2 Response
    the polysynaptic, functional stretch reflex, with a latency of 50-80ms
  25. Triggered Reaction
    a relatively complex, coordinated reaction to a particular stimulus, with a latency of 80-120 ms
  26. M3 Response
    the voluntary reaction time response with a latency of 120-180 ms
  27. Movement Time (MT)
    the interval of time that elapses from the beginning to the end of a movement
  28. Focal Vision
    the visual system people use primarily to identify objects; it uses the center of the visual field, leads to conscious visual perception, and is degraded in dim lighting
  29. Ambient Vision
    the visual system that allows people to detect the orientation oftheir body in the environment; it is nonconscious, takes in all ofthe visual field, and is used for action and movement control
  30. Optical Flow
    the movement (or continuous flow) of patterns of light rays from the environment over a person's retina, allowing the person to detect motion, position, and timing
  31. Visual Proprioception
    sensory information provided by the visual system about proprioceptive aspects of a person's movements
  32. Tau
    an optical variable proportional to time until contact; defined as the size for the retinal image divided by the rate of change of the image
  33. Visual Dominance
    the tendency for visual information to dominate information from the other senses during the process of perception
  34. Visual Capture
    the tendency for visual information to attract a person's attention more easily than other forms of information
  35. Open Skill
    a skill performed in an environment or in motion and that requires performers to adapt their movements in response to dynamic properties of the environment
  36. Closed Skill
    a skill performed in an environment that is predictable or stationary and that allows performers to plan their movements in advance
  37. Degrees of Freedom
    the components of a control system that can vary independently and that are controlled to produce effective action
  38. Motor Program
    a set of motor commands that is prestructured at the executive level and that defines the essential details of a skilled action
  39. Long-Term Memory (LTM)
    the memory system that holds information and life experiences;believed to be vast in capacity and unlimited in duration
  40. Short-Term Memory (STM)
    the memory system that allows people to retrieve, rehearse, process,and transfer information from STSS; believed to be limited incapacity and brief in duration
  41. Reaction Time (RT)
    the interval of time that elapses from the sudden presentation of astimulus to the beginning of a person's response
  42. Deafferentation
    a surgical procedure in which an afferent pathway (one that carries sensory information toward CNS) is cut, preventing nerve impulses from the periphery from reaching the spinal cord
  43. Central Pattern Generator (CPG)
    a centrally located control mechanism that produces mainly genetically defined, repetitive actions, such as locomotion or chewing
  44. Reflex-Reversal Phenomenon
    a special case of reflex activity involving different responses to the same tactile stimulus when it is presented in different phases of the movement
  45. Dynamical Perspective
    an explanation for how people control coordinated movements that emphasizes the interaction of dynamic properties of the neuromuscular system and physical properties of environmental information
  46. Motor-Program Notion
    an explanation for how people control coordinated movements that emphasizes the role of prestructured motor commands organized at the executive level
  47. Storage Problem
    a deficiency of the simple motor-program notion, which presumes the need for a vast memory capacity to store separate programs for controlling the nearly infinite number of movements people are able to produce
  48. Novelty Problem
    a deficiency of the simple motor-program notion, which presumes the people are unable to produce novel (new) movements or unpracticed variations of learned movements because they have not developed specific motor programs for producing them
  49. Generalized Motor Program
    a motor program that defines a pattern of movement rather than a specific movement; this flexibility allows performers to adapt the generalized program to produce variations of the pattern that meets various environmental demands
  50. Fundamental Timing Structure
    the sequencing and timing (or rhythm) of a movement that define the underlying pattern
  51. Surface Features
    the easily changeable components of a movement, such as movement time or amplitude; that are modified as a result of changing parameters
  52. Parameters
    the variable inputs to a generalized motor program, such as speed or amplitude of the movement, which result in different surface features