Alcamo's Ch 6&8

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medic11
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208944
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Alcamo's Ch 6&8
Updated:
2013-03-26 15:03:44
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BI 301
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Ch 8 w/some 6 mixed in cards
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  1. Genetic info in bacterial and archaeal cells is contained with a ___.
    Chromosome
  2. Something that is said to have a single set of genetic info is said to be ___.
    Haploid
  3. The chromosome exists as thread like fibers assoc with some protein & is localized in the cytosol within a space called the ___.
    NucleoidNucleotides
  4. Chromosome morphology in bacteria & archaea is usually ___ but in eukarya it is usually ___.
    • Circular
    • Linear
  5. What are plasmids?
    • Stable, extrachromosomal DNA elements
    • Do not carry essential info
  6. What do F plasmids allow for?
    Transfer of genetic info fr donor to recipient
  7. What are R plasmids for?
    • Resistance factors
    • ie genes for antibiotic resistance
  8. DNA replication occurs in what 3 phases?
    • Initiation
    • Elongation
    • Termination
  9. Where does replication initiate or start?
    At a fixed region on the chromosome called the OriC
  10. What structure unwinds & unzip the 2 polynucleotide strands ?
    Helicases
  11. What structure keeps template strands separated for the replication of complimentary strands?
    Stabilizing proteins
  12. In each DNA replication factory, yet to be replicated template strands move through a V-shaped ___ ___.
    Replication fork
  13. During the elongation phase of DNA replication, what structure moves along each strand catalyzing the insertion of new complementary nucleotides to each template strand?
    DNA polymerase III
  14. In what direction does DNA polymerase III replicate DNA?
    From 3' to 5'
  15. When DNA polymerase III & I detect mismatched nucleotides what do they do?
    They remove the incorrect nucleotide in the pr & replace it with the correct one
  16. What occurs at the termination of DNA replication?
    • Replication forks meet
    • Terminator proteins block further replication
    • Intertwined DNA molecules separated by other enzymes
  17. DNA polymerase reads the DNA template in a 3' to 5' direction in the (leading or lagging) strand of DNA?
    Leading
  18. DNA polymerase moves away fr the replication fork in a discontinuous process of starts and stops in the (leading or lagging) strand?
    Lagging
  19. The discontinuous synthesis of the lagging strand results fr DNA polymerase moving away from the replication fork resulting in the formation of DNA fragments called what?
    Okazaki fragments
  20. Okazaki fragments are linked together by with the help of an enzyme called ___ ___.
    DNA ligase
  21. What are the major proteins of initiation?
    Initiator proteins along w/enzymes
  22. What enzyme adds new nucleotides & proofreads the new sequence?
    DNA polymerase III & I
  23. Where does the replication complex form on the bacterial chromosome?
    At the OriC
  24. Bacterial & archaeal DNA is organized within the ___.
    Nucleoid
  25. During transcription what happens?
    Gene DNA serves as a template for new mRNA molecules
  26. What are the 3 types of RNA?
    • mRNA - message
    • tRNA - aminoacid
    • rRNA - ribosomal
  27. What 2 bases are different between DNA and RNA?
    Thymine in DNA is replaced by uracil in RNA
  28. a specific sequence of three consecutive nucleotides that is part of the genetic code and that specifies a particular amino acid in a protein or starts or stops protein synthesis is called a what?
    Codon
  29. RNA polymerase does what?
    Races along a strand of DNA transcribing it into a strand of RNA
  30. Compare and contrast replication vs transcription.
    Transcription creates a strand of RNA fr which a new strand of DNA can be copied where as in replication a new strand of DNA is created rather than a pattern for a strand
  31. ___ is the process of making the polypeptide at the ribosome.
    Translation
  32. ___ are a result of heritable, permanent changes in the DNA.
    Mutations
  33. Each codon specifies what?
    An individual amino acid
  34. Transcription starts at a ___ found on the ___ ___.
    • Promotor
    • Template strand
  35. What does RNA polymerase do in transcription?
    • Transcribes the template
    • Substitutes uracil for thymine where adenine appears in the DNA template strand
  36. Segments of DNA that are removed by archaea and eukaryotes are called ___ while the remaining amino acid coding segments are called ___. 
    • Introns
    • Exons
  37. What does it mean that the Genetic code is degenerate?
    • Genetic code is redundant but not ambiguous.  
    • There is more than one code for an AA however only one AA can be linked to each code
  38. What type of mutation comes fr heritable changes to the base sequence in the DNA resulting fr natural phenomena. 
    Spontaneous mutations
  39. Mutations generated by scientists that can be chemical or physical agents called mutagens are called what?
    Induced mutations
  40. What is an example of chem mutagen?
    Nitrous acid
  41. What is an example of a physical mutagen?
    UV light
  42. Describe a point mutation?
    • Change or substitution of different base pr 
    • Deletion or addition of base pr
  43. A mutation that has no effect on the organism is known as a ___ mutation.
    Silent
  44. A mutation that leads to the insertion of the wrong amino acid is known as a ___ mutation.
    Missense
  45. A mutation that generates a stop codon prematurely terminating the polypeptide is a ___ mutation.
    Nonsense
  46. Explain a mismatch repair.
    As DNA polymerase adds bases & proofreads its work it also removes mismatched nucleotides
  47. What are the 3 steps in an excision repair?
    • Nuclease cuts out damaged DNA
    • DNA polymerase replaces missing nucleotides w/correct ones 
    • DNA liase seals new strand in with the rest
  48. How can negative plating technique ID auxotrophs?
    • By detecting nutritional mutants that fail to grow when replica plated on minimal medium.
    • Comparing to plating on complete medium visually IDs auxotrophic mutants
  49. ___ ___ can be used to ID mutants having certain attributes such as what?
    • Positive Selection
    • Antibiotic resistance
  50. A mutant having a nutritional requirement for growth is known as a(n) ___.
    Auxotroph
  51. A mutant that is the normal strain isolated fr nature is known as a(n) ___.
    Prototroph
  52. What is the name given to a testing method using an auxotrophic bacterial species to ID mutagens that may be carcinogens in humans?
    Ames test
  53. Protein synthesis involves what 2 processes?
    Transcription and translation
  54. What process is a DNA directed RNA synthesis?
    A) Transcription
    B)Translation
    C) Replication
    A) Transcription
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. What happens in transcription?
    Genetic info in DNA is expressed as mRNA
  56. What happens in translation?
    RNA fr transcription is used to fit amino acids together in a precise sequence to form the protein
  57. Which RNA carries the genetic info or blueprint  to manufacture a polypeptide?
    rRNA
    tRNA
    mRNA
    mRNA
  58. Which RNA along w/proteins serves a structural role as the framework of ribosomes where AAs are assembled into proteins?
    rRNA
    mRNA 
    tRNA
    rRNA
  59. Which RNA functions as an anticodon; the one that binds to an mRNA codon?
    tRNA
    rRNA
    mRNA
    tRNA
  60. Which process involves a chaperone molecule for folding?
    Transcription
    Translation
    Replication
    Translation
  61. Chemicals produced by bacteria which kill other bacteria are called what?
    Bacteriacins
  62. The enzyme that seals DNA fragments together is called what?
    DNA ligase
  63. The method by which DNA is copied at cell division is known as what?
    Insertion
  64. What procedure can we use to screen chemicals for mutagenic properties?
    Ames Test 
    Negative selection test
    Positive selection test
    Ames Test
  65. A closed circular DNA, with few genes that are nonessential to to the cell is called what?
    Plasmid
  66. What type of mutation causes a frame shift?
    Point 
    Missense 
    Nonsense
    Point Mutation
  67. Yields pyruvate for the Kreb's cycle

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  68. Involves succinate, citrate & fumarate

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Krebs Cycle
  69. Requires cytochromes for electron transport

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  70. Requires electrons eventually to be passed on the NADPH

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Photosynthesis
  71. Requires energy fr light to take place

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Photosynthesis
  72. Ends with acceptance of electrons by oxygen atoms

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  73. Results in the formation of Glucose

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Photosynthesis
  74. Uses chlorophyll as the pigment in cyanobacteria

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Photosnythesis
  75. Requires photosystems

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Photosynthesis
  76. Results in formation of water

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Kreb's cycle
  77. Begins when acetyl-CoA combines with oxaloacetate

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Kreb's cycle
  78. Is essentially the opposite of aerobic respiration

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  79. Begins with a glucose molecule

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  80. Results in net gain of 2 ATP

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  81. Involves oxygen

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Krebs cycle
  82. Starts with oxidation of NADH

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  83. Requires and investment of 2 ATP

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  84. Results in high yield of ATP

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  85. Occurs in mitochondria of eukaryotes or inside cell membrane of prokaryotes

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Krebs cycle
  86. Generates 3 carbon dioxide molecules per turn

    A) Oxidative Phosphorylation
    B) Photosynthesis
    C) Kreb's cycle
    D) Glycolysis
    Glycolysis
  87. Chemoautotroph uses . . . 

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Organic Compounds
  88. Photoheterotrophs use . . .

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Light energy
  89. Chemoheterotrophs use . . . 

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Organic Compounds
  90. Photoautotrophs use . . . 

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Light energy
  91. Purple nonsulfur bacteria use . . .

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Light energy 
  92. Cyanobacteria use . . . 

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Light energy
  93. Fungus utilize . . .  

    A) Light energy
    B) Chem reactions for energy
    C) Carbon Dioxide
    D) Organic compounds
    Organic compounds

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