CH 7 A&P BIOL 223

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alyknight
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208956
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CH 7 A&P BIOL 223
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2013-03-25 00:24:38
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Bone Tissue
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Bone Tissue
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  1. Functions of the skeletal system include

    A) support.
    B) storage.
    C) protection.
    D) blood cell production.
    E) all of the above
    all of the above
  2. Regulatory functions of the skeletal system include
    A) maintaining blood calcium levels.
    B) absorbing the shock of unexpected rapid body movements.
    C) facilitating transmission of nerve impulses.
    D) cushioning abdominal organs such as the kidneys.
    E) all of the above
    maintaining blood calcium levels.
  3. Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system?

    A) storage of inorganic salts
    B) protection of vital organs
    C) locomotion
    D) support
    E) all of the above
    all of the above
  4. Bone cells capable of breaking down bonds are termed
    A) osteocytes.
    B) osteoblasts.
    C) osteoclasts.
    D) chondrocytes.
    E) osteons.
    osteoclasts.
  5. Immature, active bone cells are termed
    A) osteocytes.
    B) stem cells.
    C) osteoblasts.
    D) osteoclasts.
    E) chondrocytes.
    osteoblasts.
  6. Red bone marrow functions in the formation of

    A) adipose tissue.
    B) new bone.
    C) blood cells.
    D) osteoblasts.
    E) both C and D
    blood cells.
  7. Osseous tissue is classified as which of the following?

    A) neural tissue
    B) muscle tissue
    C) connective tissue
    D) epithelial tissue
    E) none of the above
    connective tissue
  8. Organic components of the matrix of bone include

    A) calcium phosphate.
    B) collagen fibers.
    C) calcium carbonate.
    D) all of the above
    E) A and B only
    collagen fibers.
  9. Layers of bone are referred to as

    A) lamellae.
    B) central canals.
    C) canaliculi.
    D) osteoclasts.
    E) osteons.
    A) lamellae.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. In the skeletal system, compact bone is located

    A) where bones are most heavily stressed.
    B) where stresses arrive from many directions.
    C) in a ring around the perimeter of long bones.
    D) in direct contact with articular cartilages.
    E) in all of the places listed above
    where bones are most heavily stressed.
  11. Spongy bone is made up of a network of bony spines called

    A) trabeculae.
    B) osteons.
    C) lamellae.
    D) canaliculi.
    E) perforating canals.
    trabeculae.
  12. Perforating canals (canals of Volkmann)

    A) are arranged parallel to the surface of the bone.
    B) are always associated with osteons in spongy bone.
    C) transmit blood vessels to osteons deep inside the bone.
    D) occur in growing juvenile bone, but are obliterated in adult bone.
    E) all of the above
    transmit blood vessels to osteons deep inside the bone.
  13. The connective tissue covering the outer surface of a bone is (the)

    A) matrix.
    B) osteon.
    C) periosteum.
    D) endosteum.
    E) none of the above.
    periosteum.
  14. Which of the following make up most of the bone tissue?

    A) cells
    B) protein fibers
    C) hydroxyapatite crystals
    D) osteons
    E) polysaccharides
    hydroxyapatite crystals
  15. The bones of the limbs are classified as

    A) short bones.
    B) long bones.
    C) flat bones.
    D) sesamoid bones.
    E) irregular bones.
    long bones.
  16. Which of the following is only found in compact bone?
    A) trabeculae
    B) canaliculi
    C) osteoblasts
    D) osteons
    E) marrow
    osteons
  17. In addition to osseous tissue, a typical bone contains
    A) other connective tissues.
    B) smooth muscle tissues (in blood vessel walls).
    C) neural tissues.
    D) all of the above
    E) none of the above
    all of the above
  18. Which of the following is a step in intramembranous ossification?

    A) Hyaline cartilage model forms.
    B) Periosteum forms a collar around the cartilage.
    C) Fibrous connective tissue is converted to bone tissue.
    D) Osteoblasts deposit bone in areas of cartilage loss.
    E) none of the above; all are part of endochondral ossification
    Fibrous connective tissue is converted to bone tissue.
  19. In intramembranous ossification,

    A) osteoblasts differentiate within a connective tissue.
    B) osteoblasts cluster together and secrete organic matrix.
    C) ossification occurs at the ossification center.
    D) only A and C
    E) all of the above
    all of the above
  20. The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates

    A) epiphyseal growth has ended.
    B) epiphyseal growth is just beginning.
    C) growth in bone diameter is just beginning.
    D) the bone is fractured at that location.
    E) The presence of an epiphyseal line does not indicate any particular event.
    epiphyseal growth has ended.
  21. The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification:
    1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium.
    2. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity.
    3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify.
    4. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone.
    5. The perichondrium is converted into periosteum, and the inner layer produces bone.The correct order for these events is
    3, 1, 5, 4, 2
  22. The hormone calcitonin functions to

    A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
    B) decrease the rate of calcium excretion.
    C) increase the rate of bone deposition.
    D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.
    E) all of the above
    increase the rate of bone deposition.
  23. A compound fracture

    A) is caused by an underlying pathology.
    B) results in bone breaking the skin.
    C) is a type of incomplete fracture.
    D) never happens.
    E) is also called a greenstick fracture.
    results in bone breaking the skin.
  24. The parathyroid hormone

    A) stimulates osteoclast activity.
    B) increases the rate of calcium absorption.
    C) decreases the rate of calcium excretion.
    D) A and C only
    E) all of the above
    all of the above
  25. The appendicular skeleton consists of

    A) the bones of the arms.
    B) the bones of the legs.
    C) the bones of the hands and feet.
    D) the bones that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton.
    E) all of the above
    all of the above
  26. Which of the following is part of the appendicular skeleton?

    A) the skull
    B) the manubrium
    C) the sternum
    D) the scapula
    E) the vertebrae
    the scapula
  27. The divisions of the skeletal system include (the)

    A) dorsal and ventral.
    B) axial and appendicular.
    C) proximal and distal.
    D) cranial, caudal, and anterior.
    E) none of the above
    axial and appendicular.
  28. Most bones in the appendicular skeleton develop from

    A) fibrous connective tissue.
    B) hyaline cartilage.
    C) the process of intramembranous ossification.
    D) the process of endochondral ossification.
    E) both B and D
    both B and D (hyaline cartilage & the process of endochondral ossification)
  29. The appendicular skeleton contains ________ bones.

    A) 80
    B) 206
    C) 126
    D) 64
    E) 62
    126
  30. The smooth, rounded, or oval articular process of a bone is termed a

    A) crest.
    B) ridge.
    C) head.
    D) condyle.
    E) trochlea.
    condyle.
  31. The pituitary gland is located in the

    A) cribriform plate.
    B) sella turcica.
    C) sphenoid sinus.
    D) glenoid fossa.
    E) hypophysis.
    sella turcica.
  32. The nasal septum includes which of the following?

    A) vomer
    B) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
    C) nasal bones
    D) inferior nasal conchae
    E) both A and B
    vomer & perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
  33. The jugular foramen is made from depressions of which pair of bones?

    A) temporal and occipital
    B) zygomatic and sphenoid
    C) temporal and sphenoid
    D) maxillary and zygomatic
    E) maxillary and temporal
    temporal and occipital
  34. The primary curves of the vertebral column are the

    A) cervical and lumbar.
    B) cervical and thoracic.
    C) cervical and pelvic.
    D) thoracic and pelvic.
    E) thoracic and lumbar.
    thoracic and pelvic.
  35. Osteoid tissue is similar to bone except for a lack of minerals.

    True/False
    True
  36. The four groups of bones include all the following except

    A) long bones
    B) short bones.
    C) rounded bones.
    D) irregular bones.
    E) flat bones.
    rounded bones.
  37. Osteomalacia results in bone brittleness.

    True/False
    False
  38. The femur (thighbone) is an irregular bone.

    True/False
    False
  39. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to receptors on osteoblasts.

    True/False
    True
  40. Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults.

    True/False
    False
  41. The skeleton does not

    A) store calcium and phosphate ions.
    B) store red blood cells.
    C) provide support for most muscle
    D) protect the brain.
    E) protect the spinal cord.
    store red blood cells.
  42. Intramembranous ossification produces the

    A) irregular bones of the vertebrae.
    B) flat bones of the skull.
    C) long bones of the limbs.
    D) short bones of the wrist.
    E) short bones of the ankle.
    flat bones of the skull.
  43. When ____________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _____________.

    A) osteogenic cells; osteoblasts
    B) osteoblasts; osteoclasts
    C) osteoblasts; osteocytes
    D) osteocytes; osteoclasts
    E) osteocytes; osteoblasts
    osteoblasts; osteocytes
  44. What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?

    A) spongy bone
    B) hemopoietic tissue
    C) red bone marrow
    D) yellow bone marrow
    E) compact bone
    yellow bone marrow
  45. Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of

    A) different diets on bone elongation.
    B) mechanical stress on bone remodeling.
    C) temperature on bone growth.
    D) age on bone thickening.sex on bone widening.
    mechanical stress on bone remodeling.
  46. Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the

    A) primary ossification center.
    B) secondary ossification center.
    C) primary bone marrow.
    D) secondary bone marrow.
    E) epiphyseal plate.
    epiphyseal plate.
  47. Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?

    A) the first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
    B) osteoblasts neutralize inhibitors that prevent bone resorption
    C) osteoclasts secrete acid phosphatase that digests collagen
    D) collagen is digested by enzymes and hydroxyapatite by hydrochloric acid
    E) solubility product is reached in the tissue fluids
    the first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
  48. Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ___________.

    A) dietary calcium; estrogen production
    B) osteoblasts; osteoclast activity
    C) estrogen; osteoclast activity
    D) parathyroid hormone; osteocyte activity
    E) exercise; osteoblast activity
    estrogen; osteoclast activity
  49. The connective tissue covering the outer surface of a bone is (the)

    A) matrix.
    B) osteon.
    C) periosteum.
    D) endosteum.
    periosteum
  50. The hormone calcitonin functions to

    A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
    B) decrease the rate of calcium excretion.
    C) increase the rate of bone deposition.
    D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.
    E) all of these
    increase the rate of bone deposition.
  51. The bones of the limbs are classified as

    A) short bones.
    B) long bones.
    C) flat bones.
    D) sesamoid bones.
    E) irregular bones.
    long bones.
  52. Spongy bone is made up of a network of bony spines called
    A) trabeculae.
    B) osteons.
    C) lamellae.
    D) canaliculi.
    E) perforating canals.
    trabeculae.
  53. Most bones in the appendicular skeleton develop from
    A) fibrous connective tissue.
    B) hyaline cartilage.
    C) the process of intramembranous ossification.
    D) the process of endochondral ossification.
    E) B and D
    hyaline cartilage. & the process of endochondral ossification.
  54. The skull bones are classified as ________________ bones.

    A)long
    B)irregular
    C)short
    D)flat
    flat
  55. A bone that is cuboidal in shape is a ________________ bone.

    A)long
    B)short
    C)flat
    D)irregular
    short
  56. Where are blood vessels and nerves found?

    A)concentric lamellae
    B)circumferential lamellae
    C)canaliculi
    D)central canal
    central canal
  57. These structures house osteocytes.

    A)lacunae
    B)perforating canals
    C)central canals
    D)canaliculi
    lacunae
  58. Which bone develops by intramembranous ossification?

    A)vertebrae
    B)cranium
    C)pelvis
    D)humerus
    E)femur
    cranium
  59. Which vitamin normally functions as a hormone?

    A)Vitamin A
    B)Vitamin C
    C)Vitamin D
    D)Vitamin E
    Vitamin D
  60. What would happen if the parathyroid glands were removed and no hormone replacement therapy were initiated?

    A)Blood calcium could increase to dangerous levels.
    B)Blood calcium could increase slightly, but not cause dangerous results.
    C)Blood calcium could drop to dangerous levels.
    D)No effects would result; the thyroid would take over its job.
    Blood calcium could drop to dangerous levels.
  61. Which of the following hormones would not affect bone growth?

    A)estrogen
    B)parathyroid hormone
    C)thyroid hormone
    D)insulin
    E)antidiuretic hormone
    F)testosterone
    antidiuretic hormone
  62. This type of fracture is characterized by presence multiple pieces:

    A)greenstick
    B)nondisplaced
    C)displaced
    D)comminuted
    E)multiple
    F)linear
    comminuted
  63. Which of the following is not one of the steps of bone fracture healing?

    A)hematoma formation
    B)formation of granulation tissue
    C)callus formation
    D)remodeling
    E)All of the above are stages in fracture healing.
    All of the above are stages in fracture healing.
  64. Functions of the skeletal system include all of the following except

    A)acid-base balance.
    B)blood cell production.
    C)produce hormones which regulate blood glucose.
    D)hemopoiesis.
    E)regulation of certain electrolytes.
    produce hormones which regulate blood glucose.
  65. Which of the following is a mature bone cell that appears to be responsible for the overall supervision of bone maintenance?

    A)osteogenic cells
    B)osteoblasts
    C)osteocytes
    D)endosteum cells
    E)osteoclasts
    osteocytes
  66. The basic structural unit of compact bone is termed ________________.

    A)lamellae
    B)periosteum
    C)endosteum
    D)osteon
    E)canaliculi
    osteon
  67. Which large multinucleate cells found in bones secrete enzymes to reabsorb matrix?

    A)osteoclasts
    B)osteocytes
    C)osteoblasts
    D)osteoprogenitors
    E)chondrocytes
    osteoclasts
  68. Immature bone cells that are largely responsible for building boney matrix are called ________________.

    A)osteoclasts
    B)osteocytes
    C)osteoblasts
    D)osteoprogenitors
    E)chondrocytes
    osteoblasts
  69. Blood cells develop in which region of a bone?

    A)epiphysis
    B)diaphysis
    C)yellow marrow
    D)red marrow
    E)epiphyseal plate
    red marrow
  70. In which of the histological zones of a developing long bone would you find osteoclasts?

    A)zone of cell proliferation
    B)zone of bone deposition
    C)zone of calcified cartilage
    D)zone of cell hypertrophy
    zone of bone deposition
  71. The first step in making a long bone such as the femur is

    A)primary marrow space forms.
    B)chondrocytes in metaphysis calcify.
    C)chondrocytes in metaphysis hypertrophy.
    D)hyaline cartilage model is formed.
    E)secondary ossification.
    hyaline cartilage model is formed.
  72. In which dominant genetic condition do the chondrocytes fail to multiply?

    A)pituitary gigantism
    B)achondroplasia
    C)Paget's disease
    D)rickets
    E)osteoporosis
    pituitary gigantism
  73. Parathyroid hormone raises blood calcium concentration by all of the following except

    A)stimulating the dissolving of bone matrix.
    B)increasing the number of osteoclasts.
    C)reducing calcium excretion.
    D)inhibiting osteoblasts.
    E)increasing vitamin D excretion.
    inhibiting osteoblasts.
  74. All of these organs or organ systems participate in vitamin D production or activation except

    A)the heart.
    B)the parathyroid glands.
    C)the skin.
    D)the liver.
    E)the kidneys.
    the heart.
  75. Which vitamin normally functions as a hormone?

    A)Vitamin A
    B)Vitamin C
    C)Vitamin D
    D)Vitamin E
    Vitamin D
  76. Which of the following is the adult form of rickets in which the bones become softened and deformed?

    A)osteomyelitis
    B)osteochondroma
    C)osteomalacia
    D)osteoporosis
    osteomalacia
  77. Which of the following types of fractures is a bone broken into three or more pieces?

    A)spiral
    B)comminuted
    C)impacted
    D)greenstick
    comminuted
  78. Which condition results from little exercise and lack of estrogen after menopause?

    A)osteomalacia
    B)osteoporosis
    C)rickets
    D)Paget's disease
    E)chondrosarcoma
    osteoporosis
  79. Which of the following is part of the nasal septum?
    A) vomer bone
    B) zygomatic bone
    C) maxillary bone
    D) frontal bone
    E) sphenoid bone
    vomer bone
  80. Ribs that join the sternum directly are called ________ ribs.

    A) false
    B) true
    C) floating
    D) broken
    E) sternal
    true
  81. The parietal, temporal, frontal, and occipital bones are part of (the)

    A) cranium.
    B) skull.
    C) facial bones.
    D) axial skeleton.
    E) none of the above
    cranium.

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