3.3.2 + 3.4.1

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  1. 3 ways a healthful weight change requires?
    -gradual change in energy intake

    -regular physical exercise

    -applying behavior modifying techniques
  2. 3 effective weight loss tips
    -setting realistic goals

    -following serving sizes

    -reduce intake of high fat and high energy foods
  3. (fasting and detox diets) What are 2 organs that detoxify the body?
    liver and kidnerys
  4. What serves same purpose as a fasting and detox diet?
    eating a whole food high fiber diet
  5. How are fasting and detox diets bad?
    -causing build up of ketones

    -breakdown of lean tissue
  6. Macronutrient diets AND importance of percentages
    -macro composition does not appear to affect the amount of weight lost
  7. What is goal of low carb diets?
    to cause ketosis
  8. (weight loss medications and herbal supplements) they should only be used under two conditions
    -BMI of 30 Kg

    -BMI of 27 and other health risk factors
  9. Weight loss medications AND side effects
    • many have dangerous side effects
    • *many have been removed from market
  10. what is the BMI of Underweight
    below 18.5
  11. Underweight AND risks of being underweight
    • -increases risk of infections and illness
    • *can be fatal
    • **can be just as unhealthy as being overweight
  12. (effctive weight gain) How many calories per day should be consumed?
    500-1000 a day
  13. (effctive weight gain) why to avoid tobacco products during weight gain?
    it depresses appetite and increases BMR
  14. (effctive weight gain) how much should you limit fat intake?
    15-30% of total energy intake
  15. Whats BMI of overweight person?
  16. Whats BMI of obesity and morbid obesity?
  17. What does morbid obesity mean?
    weight that exceeds 100% of normal
  18. What is a multifactorial disease?
    • many things causes a disease like obesity
    • *combination of genetics and environment
  19. what are 3 treatments for obesity?
    -low calories diet with regular exercise

    -prescription medications

  20. What are 3 surgeries that can be used as treatments for obesity?

    -gastric bypass

    -gastric banding
  21. Look at diagram 61
  22. What is physical activity?
    any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure
  23. What is leisure time physical activity?
    • any activity unrelated to a persons occupation
    • *hiking, biking, planned weight lifting
  24. Physical fitness
    state of being created by the interaction between nutrition and physical activity
  25. what 4 components does physical fitness include?
    -cardiorespiratory fitness

    -musculoskeletal fitness


    -body composition
  26. example for cardiorespiratory
    • aerobic type activities
    • *walking, running, swimming
  27. example of muscoskeletal fitness
    resistance training,weightlifting, calisthenics
  28. example of flexibility
  29. percentage of US adults AND leisure time physical activity
    -26 percent admit to not doing any of it
  30. Percentage of high school students AND P.E
    less than 30 percent of high school students participate in daily p.e
  31. percentage of americans AND sufficient time physical actiivty
    55 percent of americans do not perform sufficient physical activity
  32. How often should people do strenght, flexibility, and leisure acitivities?
    2-3 times a week
  33. How often should people do planned recreational actiivites? (2)
    -20-30 minutes

    -3-5 times a week
  34. How often should people do general acitivty?
    every day
  35. (overload principle) Is too much physical exertion recommended?
  36. Overload principle
    additional physical demands on the body to imporve fitness
  37. What principle can be used to determine overload principle?
    FIT principle
  38. What are the 3 principles of FIT?


    • -time of activity
    • *accumulation of activities all at once or separated
  39. (guidelines of US dept of health and human services) children and adolescents (2)
    • -1 hour or more of physical activity
    • *moderate of vigorous

    -3 days a week they should perform vigorous-intensity activity and muscle and bone strengthening
  40. (guidelines of US dept of health and human services) adults (4)
    • -2 hours amd 30 minutes a week or
    • *moderate

    • -1 hour and 15 minutes¬†
    • *vigorous

    -aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of 10 mins.

    • -2 or more days per week muscle strengthening
    • *major muscles
  41. (guidelines of US dept of health and human services) older adults (3)
    -should follow adult guidelines

    -avoid inactivity

    -exercises that maintain or improve baalnce
  42. Amount of ATP AND duration of it
    ATP must be generated continuously b/c muslces store only enough ATP for 1-3 seconds of activity
  43. what is ATP?
    the eenrgy carrying molecule in the body
  44. (after depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to other sources) Creatine phosphate
    • stores some energy that can be used to make ATP
    • *gives up its phosphate
  45. Creatine phosphate AND its duration
    has stores that are enough for 3-15 seconds of max physical effort
  46. What happens after creatine stores are done?
    carbs are used, glucose
  47. Glucose is the...
    primary carb used to generate ATP
  48. (metabolism of glucose) How much ATP is produced if using anaerobic ?
    2 ATP molecules
  49. (metabolism of glucose) How many ATP are produced using aerobic breakdown?
    36-38 molecules of ATP
  50. Besides ATP, carbs, and creatine what else can be used to generate ATP?
  51. What are the triglycerides used for?
    -low intensity exercise

    -for exercise of long duration
  52. Are proteins used as energy?
    no they are not
  53. When are muscle glycogen stores repleted at fastest rate? (3)
    • within first few hours after exercise
    • *7-10 g
    • *high GI foods may help replete stores better than low GI in immediate post recovery period
  54. What is carb loading?
    • altering exercise and carb intake to maximize muscle glycogen stores
    • *5-10 g carb intake increase 6 days prior the event
  55. What is Heat syncope?
    dizziness from standing too long in the heat
  56. what are heat cramps?
    msucle spasms that occur several hours after strenous exercise
  57. 3 main vitamins that are required for athletes?
    - b vitmains

    - calcium

Card Set:
3.3.2 + 3.4.1
2013-03-23 05:07:40

maintaining body weight and beginning of sports nutrition
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