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3 ways a healthful weight change requires?
-gradual change in energy intake
-regular physical exercise
-applying behavior modifying techniques
3 effective weight loss tips
-setting realistic goals
-following serving sizes
-reduce intake of high fat and high energy foods
(fasting and detox diets) What are 2 organs that detoxify the body?
liver and kidnerys
What serves same purpose as a fasting and detox diet?
eating a whole food high fiber diet
How are fasting and detox diets bad?
-causing build up of ketones
-breakdown of lean tissue
Macronutrient diets AND importance of percentages
-macro composition does not appear to affect the amount of weight lost
What is goal of low carb diets?
to cause ketosis
(weight loss medications and herbal supplements) they should only be used under two conditions
-BMI of 30 Kg
-BMI of 27 and other health risk factors
Weight loss medications AND side effects
- many have dangerous side effects
- *many have been removed from market
what is the BMI of Underweight
Underweight AND risks of being underweight
- -increases risk of infections and illness
- *can be fatal
- **can be just as unhealthy as being overweight
(effctive weight gain) How many calories per day should be consumed?
500-1000 a day
(effctive weight gain) why to avoid tobacco products during weight gain?
it depresses appetite and increases BMR
(effctive weight gain) how much should you limit fat intake?
15-30% of total energy intake
Whats BMI of overweight person?
Whats BMI of obesity and morbid obesity?
What does morbid obesity mean?
weight that exceeds 100% of normal
What is a multifactorial disease?
- many things causes a disease like obesity
- *combination of genetics and environment
what are 3 treatments for obesity?
-low calories diet with regular exercise
What are 3 surgeries that can be used as treatments for obesity?
What is physical activity?
any muscle movement that increases energy expenditure
What is leisure time physical activity?
- any activity unrelated to a persons occupation
- *hiking, biking, planned weight lifting
state of being created by the interaction between nutrition and physical activity
what 4 components does physical fitness include?
example for cardiorespiratory
- aerobic type activities
- *walking, running, swimming
example of muscoskeletal fitness
resistance training,weightlifting, calisthenics
example of flexibility
percentage of US adults AND leisure time physical activity
-26 percent admit to not doing any of it
Percentage of high school students AND P.E
less than 30 percent of high school students participate in daily p.e
percentage of americans AND sufficient time physical actiivty
55 percent of americans do not perform sufficient physical activity
How often should people do strenght, flexibility, and leisure acitivities?
2-3 times a week
How often should people do planned recreational actiivites? (2)
-3-5 times a week
How often should people do general acitivty?
(overload principle) Is too much physical exertion recommended?
additional physical demands on the body to imporve fitness
What principle can be used to determine overload principle?
What are the 3 principles of FIT?
- -time of activity
- *accumulation of activities all at once or separated
(guidelines of US dept of health and human services) children and adolescents (2)
- -1 hour or more of physical activity
- *moderate of vigorous
-3 days a week they should perform vigorous-intensity activity and muscle and bone strengthening
(guidelines of US dept of health and human services) adults (4)
- -2 hours amd 30 minutes a week or
- -1 hour and 15 minutes
-aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of 10 mins.
- -2 or more days per week muscle strengthening
- *major muscles
(guidelines of US dept of health and human services) older adults (3)
-should follow adult guidelines
-exercises that maintain or improve baalnce
Amount of ATP AND duration of it
ATP must be generated continuously b/c muslces store only enough ATP for 1-3 seconds of activity
what is ATP?
the eenrgy carrying molecule in the body
(after depleting ATP stores, muscles turn to other sources) Creatine phosphate
- stores some energy that can be used to make ATP
- *gives up its phosphate
Creatine phosphate AND its duration
has stores that are enough for 3-15 seconds of max physical effort
What happens after creatine stores are done?
carbs are used, glucose
Glucose is the...
primary carb used to generate ATP
(metabolism of glucose) How much ATP is produced if using anaerobic ?
2 ATP molecules
(metabolism of glucose) How many ATP are produced using aerobic breakdown?
36-38 molecules of ATP
Besides ATP, carbs, and creatine what else can be used to generate ATP?
What are the triglycerides used for?
-low intensity exercise
-for exercise of long duration
Are proteins used as energy?
no they are not
When are muscle glycogen stores repleted at fastest rate? (3)
- within first few hours after exercise
- *7-10 g
- *high GI foods may help replete stores better than low GI in immediate post recovery period
What is carb loading?
- altering exercise and carb intake to maximize muscle glycogen stores
- *5-10 g carb intake increase 6 days prior the event
What is Heat syncope?
dizziness from standing too long in the heat
what are heat cramps?
msucle spasms that occur several hours after strenous exercise
3 main vitamins that are required for athletes?
- b vitmains