chapter 14 study guide BIO205

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chapter 14 study guide BIO205
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chapter 14 study guide BIO205
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  1. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    Normal microbiota colonize parts of body without causing disease – resident or transient
  2. Are they mutualistic or commensal?
    both - some are mutualistic – bacteria in colon that produce vitamins, some are commensal – Staphylococcus epidermidis)
  3. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    Are there just a few kinds or many kinds?
    • many kinds...400-1000
    • 400-1000 kinds in large intestine
  4. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    Do they remain for life, or are they transient?
    some remain residents of body for life, some are transient)
  5. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    Where are they found?
    skin, digestive tract, upper parts of respiratory tract, lower parts of urinary and reproductive tracts -urethra, vagina
  6. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    How are they acquired?
    during childbirth, during feeding, during handling
  7. Describe normal microbiota (normal flora) in hosts including:
    Do they cause disease?
    normally don't, but may cause opportunistic infection
  8. Give three examples of how normal microbiota may become opportunistic pathogens?
    Immune suppression:
    when a person is sick, malnurished, under stress, etc
  9. Give three examples of how normal
    microbiota may become opportunistic pathogens?
    Changes in normal microbiota:
    when a person starts using an antibiotic it may kill some nonpathogenic flora, allowing more pathogenic microbes to thrive
  10. Give three examples of how normal
    microbiota may become opportunistic pathogens?
    Introduction of a member of the normal microbiota into a unusual site:
    from rectum to urethra
  11. Give examples reservoirs of infectious diseases of humans, including
    animal reservoirs:
    (zoonoses) rabies carried by many mammals - transferred to humans by animal bite 
  12. Give examples reservoirs of infectious
    diseases of humans, including 
    human carriers:
    people who are actively sick; people who are not actively sick (asymp-tomatic), but still carry the pathogen; people who don't become sick, but still carry the pathogen
  13. Give examples reservoirs of infectiousdiseases of humans, including 
    nonliving reservoirs:
    • soil – fecal contamination (Clostidium),
    • water – contamination from feces or urine –
    • = protozoans (Giardia), bacteria (cholera), =
    • food – fecal or other contamination
    • of meat, fruits, vegetables (E.coli)
  14. Explain the difference between “contamination”, “infection”, and “disease”
    • Contamination - presence of microbes in or on the body - may do no harm
    • Infection - microbes multiply, become established in the body - may or may not cause disease
    • Disease - loss of normal body function= morbidity, any change from state of “health” 
  15. How do microbes get into the host? Give examples of portals of entry
    SKin
    outer layer is thick layers of tightly packed, dead, dry cells(good barriers for most microbes) enter through hair follicles, sweat glands, abrasion, cuts, bites, scrapes, stab wounds.
  16. How do microbes get into the host? Give
    examples of portals of entry 
    Mucous membranes
    Respiratory tract
  17. How do microbes get into the host? Give
    examples of portals of entry
    Placenta:
    2% of pregnancies, pathogens cross the placenta into embryo
  18. How do microbes get into the host? Give
    examples of portals of entry
    Parenteral route:
    A means by which portals of entry are circumvented(punctures by nails, thorns, hypodermic needles)
  19. Describe the role of adhesion in infection.  How do bacteria and viruses adhere to a host cell?
    • Adhesion is necessary for successful infection by pathogen; loss of adhesion facto results in loss of pathogenicity
    • Pathogens have adhesion factors- attachment structures of bacteria and viruses  

    •                         examples: ligands - proteins, lipoproteins, glycoproteins
    • bind to receptors on host

    •                                     "Adhesins"
    • of bacteria on fimbriae, flagella,  or glycocalyces

    •                                     "Attachment
    • proteins" of viruses
  20. What special strategies do whooping cough and malaria have for adhering to a host cell?
    • Whooping cough pathogen (Bordetella) has more than one type of adhesin
    • Malaria (Plasmodium) changes adhesins over time
  21. Define and give examples of symptoms
    subjective characteristics of a disease, felt by patient alone. ex: headache, pain, dizziness, fatigue
  22. Define and give examples of signs
    objective manifestations of disease that can be measured or observed by others.
  23. What is a syndrome?
    group of signs and symptoms that characterize a particular disease.
  24. What are the four postulates of the microbiologist Koch, and what is the purpose ofthese postulates?
    Can they always be used?
    • Purpose: to determine the causative agent of a disease.
    • These 4 postulates must be satisfied in order:
    • 1) Pathogen must be present in all cases. 2) Pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture.
    • 3) Cultured pathogen must cause disease in health susceptible host.
    • 4) Same pathogen must be re-isolated from diseased experimental host.
    • Exceptions: 
    • 1)Some pathogens cannot be cultured in the lab (Mycobacterium leprae)
    • 2)Some diseases caused by a combination of pathogens, or pathogen plus physical or            genetic factors.
  25. What is the difference between “pathogenicity” and“ virulence”?
    • Pathogenicity - ability to cause disease
    • Virulence - a measure of the relative ability of a pathogen to infect a host and cause disease = degree of pathogenicity - not a measure of severity of disease.
  26. Name seven virulence factors
    • 1) Ability to enter host
    • 2)Adhere to host cells
    • 3)Gain access to nutrient
    • 4)Escape detection/removal by immune system
    • 5)Extracellular enzymes
    • 6)Toxins
    • 7)Antiphagocytic factors
  27. How do extracellular enzymes increase a pathogen’s virulence?
    These enzymes help microbes move deeper into tissues, andavoid body defenses
  28. extracellular enzymes.
    Hyaluronidase?
    breaks down hyaluronic acid
  29. extracellular enzymes.
    Collagenase?
    - breaks down collagen
  30. extracellular enzymes.
    Coagulase?
    coagulates blood, providing a “hiding place” within the clot
  31. extracellular enzymes.
    Kinases?
    break down blood clots
  32. What are toxins?
    Toxins are chemicals that damage tissues or trigger immune response that causes damage          to tissues
  33. Exotoxin:
    Cytotoxins
    kill host cells
  34. Exotoxin:
    Neurotoxins
    interfere with nerve function
  35. Exotoxin:
    Enterotoxins
    affect cells lining the GI tract
  36. Endotoxins: example
    Lipid portion of lipopolysaccharide (outer bacterial membrane)
  37. Describe two antiphagocytic factors
    • Capsules - composed of chemicals normally found in the body - don't stimulate immune response
    • Antiphagocytic chemicals - prevent fusion of lysosomes with phagocytiv vesicles
    • M protein produced by Struptococcus pyogenes
    • Leukocidins- destroy pathogen
  38. What are the five stages of infectious disease?
    • 1) Incubation period
    • 2)Prodromal period
    • 3)Illnes
    • 4)Decline
    • 5)Convalescence
  39. What are the five stages of infectious
    disease?
    Incubation period:
    Time between infection and occurrence of first symptoms or signs of disease
  40. What are the five stages of infectious
    disease?
    Prodromal period:
    Generalized, mild symptoms that precedes illness
  41. What are the five stages of infectious
    disease?
    Illness:
    Most severe stage of thedisease
  42. What are the five stages of infectious
    disease?
    Decline:
    • Body gradually returns to normal
    • Immune response peaks during this period
    • If patient doesn’t recover, then he dies
  43. What are the five stages of infectious
    disease?
    Convalescence:
    • Patient recovers from illness- Tissues
    • are repaired and returned to normal
    • Length depends on Amount of damage, Nature of the pathogen, Site of infection, Overall health of the patient
  44. Define “incubation period” and name six factors that affect a pathogen’s incubation period.
    • Time between infection and occurrence of disease
    • 1,vurulence
    • 2)Infective dose
    • 3)State and health of host's immune system
    • 4)Nature of pathogen
    • 5)Generation time
    • 6)Site of infection
  45. Give examples of each of the following
    modes of infectious disease transmissions:
    Contract transmission- 
    Direct-
    by touching, phiscal contact, pregnancy
  46. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:Contract transmission-
    Indirect:
    fomites (needles, toothbrushes, toys, money)
  47. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:Contract transmission-
    Droplet transmission:
    coughing, sneezing - less than 1 meter
  48. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:
    Vehicle transmission-
    Airborne:
    farther than 1 meter -air conditioners, sweeping, changing bed linens,                                           flaming inoculating loops
  49. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:Vehicle transmission-
    Waterborne:
    contaminated water - fecal-oral route
  50. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:Vehicle transmission-
    Foodborne:
    inadequate cooking, poorly refrigerated, fecal-oral route
  51. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:Vehicle transmission-
    Bodily fluid transmission:
    blood, saliva, urine outside the body - comes in contact with breaks in skin or mucous membranes
  52. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:
    Vector transmission-
    Biologicalvectors:
    - transmits pathogen, serves as host, biting arthropods
  53. Give examples of each of the following modes of infectious disease transmissions:
    Vector transmission-
    Mechanical vectors:
    - not required as hosts by pathogens, carry pathogens on feet or other body parts

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