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Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack contextual stimulus.
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something
A broad range of emotions that people experience.
What is emotional labor?
An employee’s expression of organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work.
What are the two types of emotions?
–Felt: the individual’s actual emotions
–Displayed: required or appropriate emotions
When does emotional labor take place?
EmotionalLabor takes place when the emotions that are felt and those that are required to be displayed are different
Explain Affective Events Theory (AET)
- This demonstrates that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work, and this reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction.
Explain Emotional Intelligence (EI)
- A person’s ability to:
- -Be self-aware
- -Detect emotions in others
- -Manage emotional cues and information
How do emotions and moods effect negotiation?
It is better to have a poker face and not get angry. Anger should be used selectively. It is said that the best negotiators don't show emotion.
How do emotions and moods effect Customer
Employee's emotions can transfer to the customer. Studies indicate a matching effects between employee and customer emotions called emotional contagion. Providing high-quality customer service makes demands on employees because it often puts them in a state of emotional dissonance.
How do emotions and moods effect Job
People who had a good day at work are usually in a better mood at home, and vice versa. It can also effect the spouse's mood as well. The next day the effect is usually gone.
How do emotions and moods effect Deviant Workplace Behaviors?
Envy is an emotion that contributes to deviant workplace behaviors. This can lead to malicious deviant behaviors such as backstabbing, distortion, etc. Employees that often feel negative emotions are more likely to engage in DWB.
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits
Includes both genetics (heredity) and life experience
First pair in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Extroverted and Introverted
Second pair in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Sensing and Intuitive
Third pair in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Thinking and Feeling
Fourth pair in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Judging and Perceiving
Define Extroverted and Introverted
- Extroverted- sociable and assertive
- Introverted- quiet and shy
Define Sensing and Intuitive
- Sensing- practical and orderly
- Intuitive- unconscious processes
Define Thinking and Feeling
- Thinking- Use logic and reason
- Feeling- Uses values and emotions
Define Judging and Perceiving
- Judging- want order and structure
- Perceiving- flexible and spontaneous
Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions: Sociable, gregarious, and assertive
Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions: Good-natured,cooperative, and trusting
Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions: Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized
Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions: Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative)
Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions: Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive
Openness to Experience
What is Core Self-Evaluation?
People who have positive cor self-evaluations like themselves and see themselves as effective, capable, and in control of their environment. Those with negative core self-evaluations tend to dislike themselves, question their capabilities, and view themselves as powerless over their environment.
The personality characteristic of Machiavellianism is named after Niccolo Machiavelli, who worte in the sixteenth century on how to gain and us power. An individual high in Machiavellianism is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes ends can justify means. They generally manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less, and persuade others more than do low Machs.
Describes a person who has a grandiose sense of self-importance, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of entitlement, and is arrogant.
- Refers to an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors.
- Tend to pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors.
Define Risk Taking
High risk-takers make more rapid decisions. A high risk-taking propensity may lead to more effective performance for a stock trader because that type of job demands rapid decision making. For an accountant who performs auditing activities probably should be taking the same level of risk.
Define Proactive Personality
Those with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations.
Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable – “How To” live life properly.
What are Terminal Values?
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
What are Instrumental Values?
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment
Define Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others: Selective Perception
Any characteristic that makes a person, and object, or an event stand out will increase the probability we will perceive it.
We can't observe everything going on about us, we engage in selective perception. Vested interests can significantly influence which problems we see.
Selective perception allows us to speed-read others, but not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture.
Define Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others: Halo Effect
When we draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic, such a intelligence sociability, or appearance, a halo effect is operating.
Our general views contaminate our specific ones. Allowing a single trait to influence your overall impression of the person you are judging.
Define Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others: Contrast Effects
This can distort perceptions. We don't evaluate a person in isolation. Our reaction is influenced by other persons we have recently encountered.
"Don't follow an act with kids or animals in it"
Define Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others: Stereotyping
When we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs, we are using the shortcut called stereotyping.
We rely on generalization every day because they help us make decisions quickly; they are a means of simplifying a complex world.
Explain Attribution Theory
An attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused.
This tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior.
Define Errors in Attributions
- •Fundamental Attribution Error
- The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate
- the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of
We blame people first, not the situation
Define Biases in Attributions
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
It is“our” success but “their” failure
Define The Rational Decision Model and List Assumptions
•A prescriptive model of decision making that rests on two major assumptions:
–People have access to all the information they need to make a decision
–People make decisions by choosing the best possible solution to a problem or response to an opportunity
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #1
Define the problem
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #2
Identify decision criteria
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #3
Weight the criteria
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #4
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #5
Rate each alternative on each criterion
Understand The Rational Decision-Making Process – Steps (Choosing an MBA Program): #6
Compute the optimal decision
Describe Bounded Rationality
•Bounded rationality: Due to the limited capacity of the human mind to meet the requirements of being fully rational; people construct simplified models that extract the essential features from complex problems without capturing all of their complexity
•Satisficing: means that decision makers choose the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria
Define Overconfidence Bias
No problem in judgment and decision making is more prevalent and more potentially catastrophic than overconfidence.
Individuals whose intellectual and interpersonal abilities are weakest are most likely to overestimate their performance and ability.
Define Anchoring Bias
This is a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
Define Confirmation Bias
The rational decision-making process assumes we objectively gather information. But we don't. We selectively gather it. The confirmation bias represents a specific case of selective perception: we seek out information that reaffirms our past choices, and we discount information that contradicts them.
The information we gather is typically biased toward supporting views we already hold.
Define Availability Bias
The availability bias is our tendency to base judgments on information readily available. This might explain why a manager's performance appraisals give more weight to recent employee behaviors than to behaviors of 6 - 9 months ago.
Define Escalation of Commitment
This refers to staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence it's wrong. Individuals escalate commitment to a failing course of action when they view themselves responsible for the failure.
Define Randomness Error
Our tendency to believe we can predict the outcome of random events is the randomness error. Decision making suffers when we try to create meaning in random events, particularly when we turn imaginary patterns into superstitions.
Define Risk Aversion
The tendency to prefer a sure thing over a risky outcome. Choosing a sure $50 over a $200 flip of a coin.
Define Hindsight Bias
This is the tendency to believe falsely, after the outcome is known, that we'd have accurately predicted it.
What seems obvious now doesn't mean it was at the time. The hindsight bias reduces our ability to learn from the past.
The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.
Define the 3 key elements of motivation
1.Intensity- how hard a person tries
2. Direction– effort that is channeled toward, and consistent with, organizational goals
3. Persistence- how long a person can maintain effort
Explain Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
- He hypothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs:
Although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates.
Explain McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
He proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, Theory Y.
Under Theory X, managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it.
Under Theory Y, managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play, and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek responsibility.
Describe Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
The data suggests that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying.
The opposite of satisfaction is "no satisfaction" and the opposite of dissatisfaction is "no dissatisfaction"
Describe McClelland’s Theory of Needs
- This looks at three needs:
- 1. need for achievement - is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards.
- 2. Need for power - is the need to make others behave in a way they would not have otherwise.
- 3.Need for affiliation - is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
Explain Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory
Basic Premise: Specific, difficult goals produce better results than do easy goals or “just do your best” goals as long as there is goal commitment
- MBO (Management by Objective):
- A system of setting goals where each level of the hierarchy negotiates with the level below to set goals until the entire organization is aligned
Explain Self-Efficacy and How to Increase It
An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
–Enactive mastery - gaining relevant experience with the task or job.
–Vicarious modeling - becoming more confident because you see someone else doing the task.
–Verbal persuasion - becoming more confident because someone convinces you that you have the skills necessary to be successful.
–Arousal - increase self-efficacy. This leads to an energized state, so the person gets "psyched up" and performs better.
Describe Adams’ Equity Theory
•An individual compares his/her outcome/input ratio to that of the referent to see if they are in balance:
- •Overpayment inequity exists when a
- person perceives that her outcome/input ratio is greater than the ratio of the
- •Underpayment inequity exists when a
- person perceives that her outcome/input ratio is less than the ratio of the
Explain How People Respond to Inequity
•Employee behaviors to create equity:
–Change inputs (slack off)
–Change outcomes (increase output)
–Distort/change perceptions of self
–Distort/change perceptions of others
–Choose a different referent person
–Leave the field (quit the job)
Contrast Three Types of Justice
•Distributive Justice- Fairness of outcome
•Procedural Justice-Fairness of outcome process
•Interactional Justice-Being treated with dignity and respect
All of these equal Organizational Justice - Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace
Explain Expectancy Theory (Toy Yoda)
•Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
•Keys to the theory:
–Instrumentality (performance/reward linkage)
–Expectancy (effort/performance linkage)