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  1. Mass leisure
    • a.      Preindustrial time: play or leisure activities closely connected to work patterns based on seasonal or daily cycles typical of the life of peasants and artisans
    •                                                               i.      Impacted by industrialization
  2. Factory
    • 1.      Factory imposed new work patterns that were determined by the rhythms of machines and clocks and removed work time completely from the family environment of farms and workshops
    • a.      Work and leisure opposite with leisure viewed as fun not work
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Leisure time: evening, weekends, summerà mass leisure
  3. New technology
    •                                                               i.      New technology and business practices also determined leisure pursuits
    • 1.      Ferris Wheel and transport allowed attendance at athletic events and parks and dances and beaches
  4. Music and Dance Halls in 19th
    •                                                               i.      First music hall in London in 1849 for lower class audienceà 1880: 500
    • 1.      More respectable; enticed both women and children to attend
    •                                                             ii.      New dance halls were for adults due to sexually suggestive dancing
  5. Tourism
    • a.      Tourism created by upper and middle class until wages increased and allowed workers to take paid vacations
    •                                                               i.      Thomas Cook: British pioneer of mass tourism; responsible for organizing railroad trip to temperance gatherings; he offered trips regularly due to profits through renting trains, lowering prices, and increasing # of passengers; offered tours
  6. Team Sports
    • a.      Team Sports were mass leisure, though sports were not new, but no longer chaotic and spontaneousà organized, with rules and official s
    •                                                               i.      English Football Association, American Bowling Congress
    •                                                             ii.      Not just for fun, but to provide training in both individual skills and sense of teamwork for military service
    • 1.      Evident in British public schools where organized sports were at the center of the curriculum
  7. Professionalism
    •                                                               i.      They rapidly became professionalized
    • 1.      Britain: soccer had Football Association/ rugby: Rugby Football Union
    • 2.      US: First national association to recognize professional baseball players formed in 1863
    • a.      1900: National League and American League had monopoly over professional baseball
  8. Development of urban transportaiton systems
    • 1.      Development of urban transportation systems made possible the construction of stadiums where thousands could attend
    • a.      Professional teams became objects of mass adulation by crowds of urbanites who compensated for their lost sense of identity in mass urban areas by developing these new loyalties
  9. Spectator sports
    •                                                               i.      Spectator sports even represented mass differences
    • 1.      Upper class soccer teams in Britain looked down on working-class teams
    •                                                             ii.      Sports cult mostly male oriented
    • 1.      Belief that females weren’t suited for it, although they could play croquet and lawn tennis
  10. Authorities
    • a.      Authorities argued that new amusements were important for improving people, they just provided entertainment and distraction
    •                                                               i.      Shift from festivals and fairs (active and spontaneous participation)à mass leisure (businesses for passive mass audiences and for profits)
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