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  1. The National State: Considerable progress was made toward achieving such liberal practices as __ and __, but it was largely in western European states the __ became a reality. Reforms encouraged the expansion of __ through __ for men and formation of political parties, which were still resisted
    constitutions and parliaments

    • mass politics
    • political democracy
    • voting rights
  2. I.                   Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
    • a.      Parliamentary government rooted in western European states
    • b.      Britain and France expanded voting rights, but Spain and Italy failed
  3. Britain
    •                                                               i.      1871: two-party parliamentary system with growth of political democracy
    • 1.      Cause pushed by expansion of suffrage
    • a.      Reform Act of 1867: right to vote extended during second ministry of William Gladstone with passage of Reform Act of 1884
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Gave vote to al men who paid rents or taxes (including enfranchising agricultural workers); not women
  4. Redistribution Act
    • a.      Redistribution Act eliminated historic boroughs and counties and established constituencies with equal populations and one representative each
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Payment of salaries to members of the House of Commons further democratized that institution by allowing more than just the wealthy
  5. British system
    •                                                               i.      British system of gradual reform through parliamentary institutions became way of British political life
    •                                                             ii.      Reform failed in Ireland, who was under British Rule
    • 1.      Act of Union of 1801 united the English and Irish Parliaments
    • a.      Irish developed a sense of national self-consciousness
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Detested absentee British landlords and their burdensome rents
  6. 1870
    1.      1870: William Gladstone attempted to alleviate Irish discontent by enacting limited land reform, but as Irish tenants continued to be evicted in the 1870s, the Irish began to make new demands
  7. 1879
    • a.      1879: group called the Irish Land League, which advocated independence, called on Parliament to institute land reform
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Charles Parnell, a leader of the Irish representatives in Parliament, called for home rule (self-government by having a separate Parliament but not complete independence
  8. Irish peasants
    • 1.      Soon, Irish peasants responded with terrorist actsà Brits get forcefulà Irish Catholics began to demand independence
    • 2.      Liberal leader, William Gladstone, introduced home rule bill in 1886 that would have created an Irish Parliament w/o granting independence, but Parliament voted down on it, especially Conservative members, who believed concessions would result in more violence
    • a.      Tried again, but he failed
  9. France
    • a.      France
    •                                                               i.      Defeat of France by Prussian armyà downfall of Napoleon’s Second Empire
    • 1.      French Republicans set up a provisional government, but the victorious Otto von Bismarck intervened and forced the French to choose a government by universal male suffrage
  10. French rejection
    a.      French people rejected republicans and favored monarchistsà radical republicans formed independent republican government in Paris called the Commune
  11. National Assembly
    •                                                               i.      National Assembly refused to give up its power and decided to crush the revolutionary Commune
    • 1.      Vicious fightingà men and women defended the Commune
    • a.      Women’s activities were traditional: caring for wounded and feeding troopsà transformed into caring for weapons, working as scouts, and setting up their own fighting brigades
  12. Louis Michel
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Louis Michel, a schoolteacher emerged as one of the leaders of the Paris Commune
    • 1.      Proved tireless in forming committees for the defense of the revolutionary Commune 
  13. All efforts in vain
    • a.      Last week of May, government troops massacred thousands of the Commune’s defenders
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      20,000 were shot; 10,000 were shipped to the French penal colony of New Caledonia in the South Pacific
  14. Brutal repression
    • a.      Brutal repression of the Commune bequeathed a legacy of hatred that continued to plague French politics for decades
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Split between the middle and working class had widened immensely
    • 1.      Harsh punishment of women who participated in the revolutionary activity served to discourage any future efforts by working class women to improve their conditions
  15. Majority of members
    1.      Although a majority of members of the monarchist-dominated National Assembly wished to restore a monarchy, inability to agree on who should be king caused monarchists to miss their opportunity and led in 1875 to an improvised constitution that established a republican form of government as the least divisive compromise
  16. Constitution
    • a.      This constitution established a bicameral legislature with an upper house, the Senate, elected indirectly and a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, chosen by universal male suffrage
    • b.      A president, selected by the legislature for a term of 7 years, served as executive of the government
  17. Third Republic
    • a.      This constitution, intended only as a stopgap measure, solidified the republic—the Third Republic—which lasted 65 years
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      New elections in 1876 and 1877 strengthened the hands of the republicans who managed by 1879 to institute ministerial responsibility and establish the power of the Chamber of Deputies
  18. Prime minister
    a.      The prime minister or premier and his ministers were now responsible not to the president but to the Chamber of Deputies
  19. Government moderation
                                                                  i.      Although the government’s moderation encouraged more middle-class and peasant support, the position of the Third Republic remained precarious because monarchists, Catholic clergy, and professional army officers were still its enemies
  20. Major crisis
    •                                                               i.      A major crisis in 1880s strengthened the republican government
    • 1.      General Georges Boulanger: popular military officer who attracted the public attention of all those discontented with the Third Republic: the monarchists, Bonapartists, aristocrats, and nationalists who favored a war of revenge against Germany
    • a.      Boulanger appeared the savior of France
    • b.      By 1889, when his strength had reached height, he ran away in fear
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      But this crisis rallied support for the resilient republic
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2013-03-23 14:35:36
HON 122

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