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  1. I.                   Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old Order
    • a.      Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia pursued political policies that were quite different from those of the western European nations
    •                                                               i.      Central European states had trappings of parliamentary government, including legislative bodies and elections by universal male suffrage, but authoritarian forces, especially powerful monarchies and conservative social groups, remained strong
    • a.      In eastern Europe, especially Russia, the old system of autocracy was barely touched by the winds of change
    • b.      Germany
    •                                                               i.      Despite unification, important divisions remained in German society that could not simply be papered over by force of nationalism
  3. %s
    • 1.      These divisions evident in new German constitution that provided for a federal system with a bicameral legislature
    • a.      The Bundesrat, or upper house, represented 25 states that made up Germany
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Individual states kept their own kings, their own post offices, and even their own armies in peacetime
  4. Lower house of German parliament
    •                                                               i.      Lower house of German parliament, the Reichstag, was elected on the basis of universal male suffrage, but it did not have ministerial responsibility
    • 1.      Ministers of government, the most important of which was chancellor, were responsible not to the parliament but to the emperor
    • a.      The emperor commanded the armed forces and controlled foreign policy and internal administration
  5. Creation of parliament
    •                                                               i.      Though the creation of a parliament elected by universal male suffrage presented opportunities for the growth of a real political democracy, it failed to develop in Germany before WWI
    • 1.      The army and Bismarck were two reasons why it did not
  6. German army
    •                                                               i.      German army viewed self ads defender of monarchy and aristocracy and sought to escape any control by the Reichstag by operating under a general staff responsible only to the emperor
    • 1.      Prussian military tradition was strong; military officers took steps to ensure loyalty of their subordinates to the emperor , which was easy as long as Junker landowners were officers
    • a.      As growth of army made it necessary to turn to the middle for officers, extreme care was taken to choose only sons “of honorable bourgeois families”
  7. policiesof Bismarck
    •                                                               i.      The policies of Otto von Bismarck, who was chancellor of new German state, served to prevent the growth of more democratic institutions
    • 1.      At first, Bismarck worked with liberals to achieve greater centralization of Germany through common codes of criminal and commercial law
    • Liberals also joined Bismarck in his attack on the catholic church, the so-called Kulturkampf, or struggle for civilization
  8. Middle-class liberals
    •                                                               i.      Like Bismarck, middle-class liberals distrusted Catholic loyalty to the new Germany
    • 1.      Bismarck’s strong-arm tactics against the Catholic clergy and Catholic institutions proved counterproductive, and Bismarck welcomed an opportunity to abandon the attack on Catholicism by making an abrupt shift in policy
  9. 1878
    •                                                               i.      1878: Bismarck abandoned liberals and began to persecute socialists
    • 1.      When Social Democratic party elected 12 deputies to the Reichstag in 1877, Bismarck grew alarmed, believing that the socialists’ antinationalistic, anticapitalistic, and antimonarchical stance represented a danger to the empire
  10. Antisocial law
    a.      1878: Bismarck got parliament to pass a stringent antisocialist law that outlawed the Social Democratic Party and limited socialist meetings and publications, although socialist candidates were still permitted to run for the Reichstag
  11. In addition
    • 1.      In addition to repressive measures, Bismarck attempted to woo workers away from socialism by enacting social welfare legislation
    • a.      1883 and 1889: the Reichstag passed laws that established sickness, accident, and disability benefits as well as old-age pensions financed by compulsory contributions from workers, employers, and the state
  12. Social security system
    •                                                               i.      Bismarck’s social security system was most progressive
    • 1.      Still, much to be desired, such as pension being payable only at age 70 after forty-eight years of contributions
    • a.      If deathà no benefits
  13. Failure
    •                                                               i.      Both the repressive and social welfare measures failed to stop growth of socialism
    • 1.      Social Democratic Party grew and Bismarck planned more repressive measures, but before he could carry them out, the new emperor William II got rid of him for his own policies
  14. Austria Hungary
    •                                                               i.      After creation of Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867, the Austrian part received a constitution that established a parliamentary system with the principle of ministerial responsibility
    • 1.      Emperor Francis Joseph ignored ministerial responsibility and proceeded to personally appoint and dismiss his ministers and rule by decree when parliament was not in session
  15. Minorities
    •                                                               i.      Problem of minorities troubled the empire
    • 1.      Ethnic Germans (1/3) governed Austria, but felt threatened by Czechs, Poles, etc.
    • a.      Difficulties evident when Count Edward von Taaffe served as prime minister
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Attempted to muddle through by relying on a coalition of German conservatives, Czechs, and Poles to maintain a majority in Parliament
  16. Concessions
    • 1.      His concessions to national minorities, like allowing Slavic languages, antagonized German-speaking Austrian bureaucracy and aristocracy, two of the basic pillars of the empire
    • a.      Opposition of Taaffe’s policies brought his downfall but didn’t solve nationalities problem
  17. Combo of forces
    •                                                               i.      held Austro-Hungarian Empire together was combo of forces
    • 1.      Francis Joseph was one unifying factor (emperor)
    • a.      Strongly Anti-Hungarian, but made an effort to take position above national differences
    • 2.      Loyalty to Catholic Church also helped keep such national groups loyal to Catholic Habsburg dynasty
    • 3.      Finally, although dominated by German-speaking officials, the large imperial bureaucracy served as unifying force for the empire
  18. Hugnary
                                                                  i.      Unlike Austria, Hungary had a working parliamentary system, but it was controlled by great Magyar landowners who dominated both Hungarian peasantry and the other ethnic groups in Hungary
  19. Hungarians
    • 1.      Hungarians attempted to solve their nationalities problem by systematic Magyarization
    • a.      Magyar language was imposed on all schools and was only language that could be used by government and military officials
  20. Russia
    •                                                               i.      Government made no concession whatever to liberal and democratic reforms, eliminating altogether any possibility of a mass politics
    • 1.      Assassination of Alexander II convinced his son and successor, Alexander III, that reform was mistakeà he quickly instituted what he said were exceptional measures
  21. Powers
    • a.      Powers of the secret police were expanded
    • b.      Advocates of constitutional monarchy and social reform, along with revolutionary groups, were persecuted
    •                                                             ii.      Entire districts of Russia were placed under martial law if the government suspected the inhabitants of treason
    • 1.      Powers of zemstvos, created by reforms of Alex II, were curtailed
  22. Alexander
    •                                                               i.      Alexander also pursued a radical Russification program of the numerous nationalities that made up the Russian Empire
    • 1.      Russians themselves constituted only 40% of the population, which didn’t stop the tsar from banning the use of all languages except Russian in schools
  23. Policy
    a.      Policy of Russification served primarily to anger national groups and create new sources of opposition to tsarist policies
  24. Alex III
    •                                                               i.      When Alex III died , his weak son and successor, Nicholas II, adopted father’s conviction that absolute power should be preserved
    • 1.      But conditions were changing, especially the growth of industrialization and the tsar’s approach was not realistic in view of new circumstances he faced
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2013-03-23 18:01:48
HON 122

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