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- substances used to imporve exercise and athletic performance
- *many are not effective
- *some are dangerous
3 types of ergonomic aids
Caffeine, Ephedrine, Carnitine, Chromium, and RIbose AND ergonomic aid use
these are used to increase energy levels and optimize fuel use
(ergogenic substance) what does Androstenodione do?
-it is an anabolic steroid that is used to increase blood testosterone
What are the claims surrounding androstenodione? (4)
-increase lean body mass
-decrease body fat
What do studies show on androstenodione?
no effects on size, strength, or body composition
(ergogenic substance) What is caffeine used for? (3)
-to improve endurance
-enhance fat loss
What is an effective dose of caffeine?
5-6 per kg of body weight
Is carnitine essential in our diet?
(ergogenic substance) Why is carnitine essential to our diet?
it has a role of fat oxidation
Studies on carnitine (4)
-decreased muscle pain
-increased weight loss
-cardiovascular function and strength
***studies show mixed results
(ergogenic substance) What does chromium do?
enhances insulin sensitivity
What were the initial results of chromium?
showed an increase in muscle mass and decrease in body fat
(ergogenic substance) what is Conjugated linocleic acid (CLA)
-polyunsaturated fatty acid found in lamb, beef, and dairy products
What have studies shown in CLA? (4)
- -decrease in body fat
- -decrease in triglycerides
- -VLDL cholesterol
- -increase in resting metabolic rate
(ergogenic substance) How is creatine used in the body?
as a source of muscle energy in the form of phosphocreatine
Why dont some people respond to creatine?
due to the amount of creatine in the msucle prior to supplementation
(ergogenic substance) Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
it has a link to testosterone thus making people think it is to increase muscle mass
DO studies show any significant evidence on DHEA?
no, it does not show any evidence that DHEA has an anablic effect
(ergogenic substance) Why do people use ephedra? (3)
-increased in energy
studies on ephedra (2)
-when paired with caffeine, it can show promote weight loss short term.
-no research on long term effectiveness or complications
Whats nickname of ephedra?
WHat year did FDA banned dietary supplements containing ephedrine?
What year was androstenodione declred illegal by FDA?
How much protein do athletes need a day?
1.2-1.7 grams per kilo a day
HOw much protein do athletes typically take in?
2.5-3.5 grams per kilo
(recommended diet) what percent is recommended for carbs?
60%, depending on the vigorous of exercise
(recommended diet) what percent is recommended for fats?
15-25 percent from fat
(recommended diet) what percent is recommended for protein
For endurance training, how much protein is recommnedde?
1.4 - 1.6 g/kilo
psychiatric condition involving extreme body dissatisfaction and long term eating patterns harming the body
variety of abnormal or atypical eating behaviors used to reduce weight
5 factors that contribute to eating disorder?
-socio cultural values
-genetic and biological factors
(factors that contirbute to eating disorders) family environment (2)
-families with an anorexic member seem to have more rigid family sructure
-family with a bulimia member show a less stable family organization
(factors that contirbute to eating disorders) media images (2)
-computers enhanced images of perfect bodies are over the media
-adolescents may not always distinguish reality from media fantasy
(factors that contirbute to eating disorders) Sociocultural values
-western culture values slenderness as beautiful
(factors that contirbute to eating disorders) Personality traits
- -individuals with eating disorders exhbit specific personality traits
- *difficult to tell if it is the traits causing the disorder
(factors that contirbute to eating disorders) genetic biological factors
-probability of having an eating disorder is several times higher if a biological relative also has one
medical disorder in which unhealthful behaviors are used to maintain a body weight less than 85% of expected weight.
what percent of anorexics are young girls and women?
what percent of anorexics will die from complications?
What is amernorrhea and what is it linked to?
-no mentrual periods for at least 3 months
-linked to anorexia
symptoms of anoerixa nervosa (3)
-restrictive eating practices
-unhealthful and distorted body image
-they do not have to have a low BMI to be anorexics
***more symptoms but we already know them
4 health risks associated with anorexia
What is bulimia nervosa?
eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging
whats binge eating?
eating large amount of food in a short period of time
WHat is purging?
an attempt to get rid of food by vomitting, laxatives, fasting, excessive exercise or other means
What percent of women does bulimia affect?
what percent of bulima patients will die from complications?
ON average binge eating occurs?
at least twice a week for 3 months
symptoms of bulimia (3)
-negative and distorted body image
6 health risks of bulimia patients
-calluses on backs of hands or knuckles
-swelling of cheeks or jaw area
3 unhealthful bheaviors that comprises disordered eatign
symptoms of binge eating disorder (5)
- -chaotic eating behaviors
- *too fast, too much
-negative self esteem
-often asosciated with depression, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders
-lack of control when binging
Health risks for binge eating disorder (3)
-increase risk of overweight
-foods that are usually eaten are high fat and sugars
-stress may lead to psychological effects
5 symptoms of chronic dieting
-preoccupation with food, weight, calories
-loss of concentration
-increased criticism of body
5 health risks of chronic dieting
- -poor nutrient and energy intakes
- *low calories
- -decreased energy expenditure due to reduced basal metabollic rate
- *decrease ability in exercise
-increased risk for eating disorder
What does female athlete triad consist off?
- mentrual dysfunction
4 people that are vital to treating eating disorders
3 thigns treatment plans include for treating eating disorders