bacteria and viruses

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Author:
davidridgeway
ID:
209034
Filename:
bacteria and viruses
Updated:
2013-03-24 15:08:02
Tags:
biology
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Description:
test
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  1. capsid
    Part of a virus - protein coat
  2. inner core of a virus is composed of:
    DNA and RNA
  3. RNA virus called what? ex:
    retrovirus  ex:  HIV
  4. Virus must have a .......  ........  to reproduce
    host cell
  5. virus that attack bacteria
    bacteriophage
  6. Five steps in Lytic Cycle
    • 1.  Attachment
    • 2.  Injection
    • 3.  Replication
    • 4.  Assembly
    • 5.  Lysis
  7. How do we cope with viral diseases?
    Vaccine
  8. Lytic cycle
    Cycle of reproduction of virus
  9. Means poisonous fluid
    Virus
  10. Can viruses be cured by antibiotics?
    No
  11. Kingdom Monera - 4 characteristics of
    • 1. Prokaryote
    • 2. Unicellular
    • 3. autotrophic
    • 4. heterotrophic
  12. Definition of a prokaryote
    simple cell with no nuclear membrane, few organelles
  13. Asexual reproduction
    binary fission-cuts cell in half - duplicates itself, also includes budding (hydra), also includes lytic cycle
  14. sexual reproduction
    conjugation- exchange DNA between two organisms
  15. protects bacteria during unfavorable conditions
    endosphere - tough outer shell
  16. Three types of respiration
    • 1.  Obligate Aerobe - only with oxy.
    • 2.  Obligate Anaerobe - only without oxy.
    • 3.  Facultative Anaerobes - can be either
  17. Two types of nutrition
    1.  Autotrophic - make their own nutrition from inorganic compounds.  Examples - photosythesis and chemosythesis  - 

    2.  Heterotrophic - nutrition is obtained by digesting organic compounds.   

    Paracytes - obtain organic compound from other living organism with no benefit to other organism

    Saprophytes - nutrition from dead organic remains of another organism
  18. Benefits of bacteria
    • nitrogen fixation
    • food preparation
    • decay
    • produce antibiotics
    • digest cellulose
    • E. coli- vitamin k
    • genetic engineering
  19. Harmful bacteria
    • Disease
    • Spoil food
  20. Needed for bacterial growth
    • water
    • oxygen
    • temperature
    • food
  21. Inhibit growth of bacteria
    • cold 
    • lack of oxygen
    • drying
    • heat 
    • salt or sugar
  22. what is a pathogen? Ex:
    • disease causing organism
    • Ex:  flu
  23. Types of diseases
    • infection-cold
    • environmental-radiation poisoning 
    • hereditary-sickle cell
  24. Barriers to Disease (4)
    • Skin/scabs
    • stomach acid
    • tears
    • mucus membranes, cilia & nasal hairs
  25. Phagocytes are also called what
    white blood cells
  26. Three ways infectious diseases are transmitted
    • airborne
    • waterborne
    • contact
  27. types of phagocytes
    • macrophage
    • lymphocytes
  28. Macrophage
    white blood cells that eat bacteria
  29. lymphocytes
    white blood cells that make T and B cells
  30. Antigen
    Foreign protein
  31. Antibodies
    disease fighting bodies
  32. memory cells
    remember how to make antibodies for a certain disease
  33. Active Immunity
    Long Lasting immunity
  34. Two types of Active Immunity
    • Natural (body naturally protects)
    • Artificial (vaccines)
  35. Passive Immunity
    Introducing antibodies into the body
  36. Two types of passive immunity
    • Natural (breast milk or placenta)
    • Artificial:  Antibodies from another animal
  37. First vaccine
    smallpox
  38. Jenner
    found small pox was not possible if a person had cowpox before
  39. soon to be eradicated
    polio
  40. Symbiosis
    Long term interaction between two species (examples include parasitism and mutualism)
  41. Parasitism
    symbiosis where one is benefitted at the expense of the other
  42. mutualism
    both benefited
  43. Pasteurize
    Boil to kill bacteria
  44. Three shapes of bacteria
    • Bacilli - rod shaped
    • cocci - sphere
    • spirilla - spiral

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