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  1. 3 types of muscles
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  2. sarco
    muscle cells
  3. myositis
    inflammation of muscle tissue
  4. sarcoplasm
    cytoplasm of a muscle cell
  5. atrophy
    cell shrinks
  6. hypertrophy
    cell gets larger
  7. hyperplasia
    multiplies (occurs in developing animal)
  8. metaplasia
    cell changes shape
  9. locations of skeletal, cardiac, smooth muscle
    • skeletal: skeletal muscles
    • cardiac: heart
    • smooth: internal organs, blood vessels
  10. actions of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: moves bones, generate heat
    • cardiac: pump blood
    • smooth: produce movements in internal organs&structures
  11. nuclei of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: multiple
    • cardiac: single
    • smooth: single
  12. striations of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: striated
    • cardiac: striated
    • smooth: non-striated 
  13. cell shape of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: long, thin fiber
    • cardiac: branched
    • smooth: spindle
  14. nerve supply of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: necessary for function
    • cardiac: modifies activity, not necessary for function
    • smooth: visceral-modifies activity, not necessary for function
    • multiunit- necessary for function
  15. control of skeletal, cardiac, smooth
    • skeletal: voluntary
    • cardiac: involuntary
    • smooth: involuntary
  16. skeletal muscle also referred to as
    voluntary striated muscle
  17. voluntary
    under control of conscious mind
  18. Z band to Z band
  19. thick lines
    myosin filaments
  20. thin lines
    actin filaments
  21. definition of muscles 
    well-defined organs composed of groups of skeletal muscle cells surrounded by a layer of fibrous connective tissue
  22. tendon
    tough, fibrous connective tissue bands
  23. aponeuroses
    broad sheets of fibrous connective tissue 
  24. most prominent aponeuroses
    linea alba
  25. more stable attachement site

    (closer to median plane/proximal)
  26. attachment site that undergoes most of the movement

    (away from median/distal)
  27. agonist/ prime mover
    muscle or muscle group that directly produces a desired movement

    (ex: long head&deep head of triceps both extend the elbow)
  28. antagonist
    muscle that directly opposes the action of a prime mover

    *cancel each other out

    (ex: triceps extend the elbow, flex shoulder; biceps flex the elbow, extend shoulder)
  29. synergist
    muscle that contracts at the same time as a prime mover and assists it in carrying out its action

    *work together!
  30. fixator
    muscle that stabilizes joints to allow other movements to take place


    (ex: muscles that flex the digits also can flex the carpus)
  31. 6 ways to name muscles
    • action
    • shape
    • location
    • direction of fibers
    • # heads or division
    • attachment sites
  32. rectus
  33. cutaneous muscles
    • in superficial fascia
    • attach to the skin
    • responsible for movement of the skin/twitch the skin
  34. 4 abdominal muscles
    • external abdominal oblique
    • internal abdominal oblique
    • rectus abdominis muscle
    • transversus abdominis
  35. functions of abdominal muscles
    • support abdominal organs
    • flex (arch) the back
    • assists in various function of straining
    •   -defecation
    •   -urination
    •   -parturition
    •   -vomiting&regurgitation
  36. abdominal muscles from outside in
    • external
    • internal
    • transversus abdominis
    • rectus abdominis
  37. form the floor of the abdominal wall
    rectus abdominis
  38. deepest abdominal muscle
    transversus abdominis
  39. runs on either side of linea alba from xiphoid process to brim of pubis
    rectus abdominis
  40. direction of abdominal muscle fibers
    • external: caudo-ventral (backward&downward)
    • internal: cranio-ventral (forward&downward)
    • rectus: straight
    • transversus: directly downward
  41. muscles of thoracic limb function mainly in
    locomotion (thereby allowing the animal to walk, run, generally move)
  42. brachial
    upper arm
  43. 4 pectoral muscles
    • descending superficial pectoralis
    • transverse superficial pectoralis
    • deep pectoral
    • xiphihumeralis 
  44. broad triangular muscle that extends from spinal column down to its insertion on the humerus
    latissimus dorsi
  45. these 4 muscles extend from the sternum to the humerus
    pectoral muscles
  46. deltoids
    • spinodeltoid, acromiodeltoid
    • triangular shape
    • extend from lateral portion of scapula down to humerus
    • abduct and flex shoulder joint
  47. holds dorsal border of scapula close to body
    has 3 heads with common insertion
  48. acts like a sling to support body between forelegs
    serratus ventralis
  49. fan shaped muscles
    • rhomboideus
    • serratus ventralis
  50. most powerful chewing muscle
  51. extend vs flex the head
    • extend-raise
    • flex-lower
  52. muscle found on lateral and dorsal aspects of the skull
  53. what forms the jugular groove?
    • sternocephalicus
    • brachiocephalicus
  54. major cutaneous muscle of head&neck

    (important in horse to quiver skin)
  55. sardonic grin
    contraction of platysma at point of euthanization
  56. extrinsic muscles
    attach limb to body
  57. intrinsic muscles
    attach to bones within the limb itself
  58. supraspinatus is antagonist to infraspinatus muscle because:
    supraspinatus extends the shoulder joint while the infraspinatus flexes the shoulder joint
  59. deltoids and infraspinatus agonists to each other because:
    both flex the shoulder
  60. triangular muscle aponeurosis into a long thin but wide tendon that is commonly used to make cuts to replace anterior cruciate ligaments
    tensor fasciae latae
  61. large egg shaped muscle, lies cranial to superficial gluteal and caudal to tensor fascia latae
    middle gluteal muscle
  62. fan shaped muscle totally covered by the middle gluteal
    deep gluteal
  63. longest, widest muscle of thigh, covers entire caudolateral aspect, spans 3 joints
    biceps femoris
  64. wedged between biceps femoris, gracilis, adductor muscle
  65. has 2 distinct bellies in the dog but undivided in the horse and cat
    sartorius muscle
  66. this muscle is antagonistic to itself (2 bellies have different actions-one extends, one flexes stifle)
    sartorius muscle
  67. wide, flat muscle covers the caudo-medial surface of the medial thigh
    gracilis muscle
  68. this muscle pulls hips in and causes pain in hip dysplasia
  69. 5 muscles that make up the common calcanean tendon
    • gastrocnemius
    • superficial digital flexor
    • semitendinosus
    • gracilis
    • biceps femoris
  70. common calcanean tendon
    • "achilles tendon" in man
    • heavy band of connective tissue that inserts on the tuber calcanei. made up of 5 muscles.
  71. inspiratory muscles
    muscles that increase the size of the thoracic cavity when they contract.

    (drawing air into the lungs is called inspiration)
  72. main inspiratory muscles (bring air into lungs)
    • diaphragm
    • external intercostal muscles (intercostalis externus)
  73. diaphragm
    thin, dome shaped sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity

    • (convex surface of its dome shape protrudes into thoracic cavity
    • when diaphragm contracts, it flattens out which pushes the abdominal organs caudally)
  74. muscle contracted to its fullest becomes
    • half as long
    • actin and myosin filaments hit and cannot go any further
  75. rigor
    contraction of muscles and cannot relax

    (animal has no more production of ATP)

    rigor mortis- contraction without relaxation after death
  76. strength of any contraction dependent upon
    number of muscle fibers that are stimulated
  77. external intercostal muscle
    • rotate ribs upward&forward when they contract to increase the size of the thoracic cavity, causing air to be drawn into the lungs
    • (fibers oblique)

    *inspiratory muscle
  78. inspiratory muscles
    external intercostal muscles
  79. expiratory muscles
    • internal intercostal muscle
    • abdominal muscles
  80. internal intercostal muscles
    • rotate the ribs backward when they contract, decreasing the size of the thorax and pushes the air out of the lungs
    • (fibers right angles to external intercostal muscles)

    *expiratory muscle
  81. abdominal muscles
    contract reducing the space of the peritoneal cavity
  82. name the 4 separate heads of abdominal muscles
  83. this muscle is usually referred to as fibers due to their overall threadlike fiber-like shape
    • skeletal muscle
    • "skeletal muscle fibers"
  84. causes to contract
  85. extend from the sarcolemma down to the protein filaments
    transverse or T tubules
  86. myofibrils that make up the muscle fiber (cell) are composed of
    thousands of tiny, contractile protein filaments (actin&myosin filaments)
  87. order of muscle makeup
    • muscle
    • muscle fibers
    • myofibril
    • myofilament (actin&myosin)
    • sarcomere (Z band to Z band)
  88. under magnification, seeing dark and light bands, you are viewing:
    attachements and overlapping of actin and myosin filaments that make up the myofibril
  89. large dark band
    • A band
    • composed of myosin filaments
  90. large light band
    • I band
    • composed of actin filaments
  91. dark line in the center of I band
    Z band
  92. Z line to Z line
  93. basic contraction unit of skeletal muscle
  94. sweeny
    • trauma to suprascapular nerve
    • involves supraspinatus&infraspinatus muscles
    • atrophy

    (ex: spurs bruise nerve)
  95. neuromuscular junction
    sites where the ends of motor nerve fibers "connect" to muscle fibers
  96. atrophy
    if skeletal muscles nerve supply is interrupted for a lengthy period as a result of injury, the muscle will shrink
  97. blocks acetylcholine
  98. blocks acetylcholinesterase
  99. blocks organophosphate
  100. synaptic vesicles
    tiny spaces within the end of nerve fibers in neuromuscular junctions that contain the chemical neurotransmitter acetylcholine 
  101. when a nerve impulse comes down the fiber it causes..
    the release of acetylcholine, which diffuses across the synaptic space and attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma, this starts the process that leads to the contraction of muscle fiber
  102. effect of acetylcholine on its receptor is
    very short lasting
  103. enzyme responsible for the very short lasting effect of acetylcholine on its receptors
  104. acetylcholinesterase
    enzyme in synapse space that quickly removes the acetylcholine molecule from its receptor and splits it apart which ends the effect of that nerve impulse (relaxation)
  105. innervates
    sends impulse to
  106. motor unit
    one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates (send impulses to)
  107. muscles that must make very small, delicate movements have
    small ratios of muscle fibers per nerve fibers
  108. larger ratio of muscle fibers per nerve fibers=
    less control you have
  109. endomysium
    delicate connective tissue layer composed of fine, reticular fibers that surrounds each individual skeletal muscle fiber
  110. fascicles
    groups of skeletal muscle fibers
  111. perimysium
    tough connective tissue layer composed of reticular fibers and thick collagen fibers that bind together fascicles
  112. calcium released at
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  113. outer covering of entire muscles
  114. 3 connective tissue layers of a muscle
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
  115. functions of connective tissue layers of muscle
    • hold muscles firmly together
    • attach to appropriate structures
    • contain blood vessels and nerve fibers that supply the muscle fibers
  116. fat deposits in meat
  117. sarcoplasm
    cytoplasm in muscle cell
  118. impulses travel along the:
    sarcolemma and through the T tubules to the interior of the cell. when the impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum it causes release of stored calcium ions into the sarcoplasm. calcium diffuses into the myofibrils starting the contraction process
  119. definition of relaxation
    detachment of myosin from actin, and return of calcium ions to the sarcoplasmic reticulum 

    (presence of ATP required for relaxation)
  120. muscle contraction is what percent efficient in regard to the accomplishment of work?

    (the non-work portion is dissipated as heat; an important source in maintaining body heat)
  121. shivering
    an attempt by the body to generate heat by muscles
  122. when a muscle fiber is in a relaxed state, the actin and myosin filaments..
    overlap only a little
  123. sliding of filaments over each other shortens the 
  124. muscle contraction
    the combined shortening of all the end-to-end sarcomere in a muscle fiber
  125. all-or-none principle
    an individual muscle fiber either contracts completely when it receives a nerve impulse or it does not contract at all.

    (this is not true of whole muscles; so how does the body produce movements that vary in range/strength when individual muscle fibers are doing all or nothing? by carefully controlling the number of muscle fibers it stimulates for a particular movement)
  126. twitch contraction
    single muscle fiber contraction
  127. 3 phases of contraction
    • latent phase- brief hesitation between nerve stimulus and beginning of the actual contraction (0.01 sec)
    • contraction phase (0.04 sec)
    • relaxation phase (0.05 sec)

    • entire cycle takes about 0.1 seconds
    • maximum contraction efficiency occurs if nerve impulses arrive about 0.1 sec apart
  128. muscle shortening can occur
    in the absence of action potentials.

    this type of shortening is referred to as rigor or physiologic contracture, as opposed to contraction.

    the actin and myosin filaments remain in a continuous contracted state because sufficient ATP is not available for relaxation.
  129. contracture that occurs after death
    rigor mortis
  130. rigor =
    no ATP
  131. animal dies from tetanus and rabies because
    descending paralysis reaches diaphragm (responsible for inspiration) cannot breathe and die.
  132. most sensitive to tetanus
  133. contraction strength varies and is achieved by
    • multiple motor unit summation or,
    • wave summation
  134. multiple motor unit summation
    the summation of one motor unit causes a weak contraction, whereas the stimulation of a large number of motor units develops a strong contraction. this is known as motor unit summation. all gradations of contraction strength are possible, depending on the number of motor units stimulated.
  135. wave summation
    muscle is stimulated to contract before the muscle has relaxed
  136. tetany
    when the frequency is sufficient to where the individual twitches become fused into a single prolonged contraction. the strength is at a maximum

    *stimulate before muscle has time to relax to increase number of muscle fibers until all contract

    • (all muscle fibers contracted)
    • (only use in reference to tetanus)
  137. how to increase number of muscle fibers?
    stimulate again before able to relax
  138. tetanus
    bacterial disease caused by potent neurotoxin (tetanospasm) produced by the organism Clostridium tetani

    • the neurotoxin reaches the CNS and prevents release of inhibitory transmitter (glycine) resulting sensitivity to excitatory impulses, produces muscular spasms (tetany)

    "lockjaw" bc masseter muscles that close the mouth are stronger than the muscles that open it
  139. all clostridium is
    • gram positive
    • sensitive to penicillin
  140. treppe
    stimuli of equal intensity a few seconds apart (allowed to relax) each successive muscle twitch has slightly more strength than the previous one until optimal contraction strength is reached.
  141. common name for treppe
    staircase phenomenon
  142. immediate energy source that powers the sliding of the actin and myosin filaments is the compound
    ATP (which is produced by many mitochondria in muscle fibers)

    when one of the phosphate groups is split off (forming ADP) a considerable amount of energy is released that powers the sliding of the filaments
  143. "battery charger" that converts ADP back to ATP
    creatine phosphate (CP)

    catalyzed by the enzyme creatinine kinase (CK)

    CP+ADP>> CK >> C+ATP
  144. two main compounds involved in energy
    • glucose
    • oxygen

    glucose-sugar molecule that is the primary energy source for most body cells
  145. how is glucose stored?
  146. how is oxygen stored in the fibers?
    attached to large protein molecules called myoglobin
  147. aerobic metabolism
    oxygen supply is adequate to keep up with the energy needs of the muscle fiber
  148. anaerobic metabolism
    need for oxygen exceeds the available supply 

    • not as efficient as aerobic metabolism
    • results in lactic acid formation as a byproduct of incomplete glucose breakdown

    (anaerobic= non-oxygen dependent)
  149. muscle fibers store
    glucose and oxygen
  150. heat production
    • muscles are less than 100% efficient at converting energy to useful work
    • considerable amount of energy produced lost in form of heat
    • muscular activity is one of the major heat-generating mechanisms the body uses to maintain constant internal temp
    • if heat production exceeds body needs must be eliminated by mechanisms such as panting, sweating
  151. cardiac muscle also known as
    involuntary striated muscle
  152. cardiac muscle cells are much smaller or larger than skeletal muscle?
  153. intercalated disks
    firm end-to-end attachments between cardiac muscle cells 
  154. unique and important things about cardiac muscle
    • contracts without external stimulation
    • groups of cardiac muscle cells adopt the contraction rate of the most rapid cell in the group
  155. scientific name for "pace maker"
    sinoatrial (SA) node
  156. impulse that starts each heart beat begins in the heart's
    sinoatrial node
  157. sinoatrial node located in the
    wall of the right atrium
  158. nerves to the heart are from both divisions of the autonomic portion of the nervous system:
    • sympathetic (these fibers stimulate the heart to beat hard and faster as part of the "fight or flight" response)
    • parasympathetic (these fibers inhibit cardiac function, causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force when the body is relaxed/resting)
  159. smooth muscle
    • non-striated involuntary muscle
    • found all over the body in two main forms:
    • 1.large sheets of cells in the walls of some hollow organs (visceral smooth muscle)
    • 2. small, discrete groups of cells (multiunit smooth muscle)
  160. nerve supply to smooth muscle consists of both divisions of the autonomic nervous system:
    sympathetic stimulation decreases visceral smooth muscle activity (fight or flight-dont need gut to fight)

    parasympathetic stimulation increases it (bc of digestion)
  161. some smooth muscle characteristics
    • small, spindle shaped
    • single nucleus in the center
    • smooth,homogenous (same color) appearance bc filaments not arranged in parallel myofibrils as in skeletal and cardiac muscle.
    • individual smooth muscle cells can shorten to greater extent than skeletal and cardiac
  162. multiunit smooth muscle
    • made up of individual smooth muscle cells or small groups of cells
    • contractions are not autonomic, require impulses from autonomic nerves to contract
    • actions are specific and carefully controlled
Card Set:
2013-03-26 05:28:57

muscle test
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