A&P Ch 2
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A&P Ch 2
A&P Chapter 2 - Chemistry
State of matter that has definite shape and volume.
State of matter that has definite volume and changeable shape.
State of matter that has changeable shape and volume.
Energy in action.
Stored energy; energy of position.
Form of energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances (between atoms & molecules).
Form of energy in the movement of charged particles.
Form of energy directly involved in moving matter (involving movement).
Form of energy in (electromagnetic) waves.
Conversion of energy forms releases ____.
How many nanometers in one meter?
The number of ____defines the element.
98.5% of the human body is made up of these elements.
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus
The human body is 60-70% ____.
These elements are stored in the bones of the body.
Calcium & Phosphorus
An electroneutral atom has an ___ number of protons as electrons.
How big is the nucleus of an atom?
Which element doesn't have a neutron?
The sum of atomic weights of atoms.
An isotope has a change in the number of ____.
The "decimal" weight listed under the element in the periodic table is ___.
Average weight of all isotopes.
Half of a substance has degraded to something else over a certain period of time.
Chemical bond (combination) of 2 or more of the same element.
A chemical bond (combination) of 2 or more different elements.
The smallest particle of a compound that still exhibits the specific characteristics of a compound.
Combination that is physically intermixed (not chemical) and is easily separable by non-chemical means.
A mixture containing a solvent and a solute (particles < 1 nm in size) that is transparent and remains mixed.
Mixture of protein and water; changes from liquid to gel withing and between cells' cloudy and remains mixed.
Mixture in which particles are >100 nm, is cloudy or opaque in appearance, and separates on standing (lighter stuff on the top, heavier stuff on the bottom).
Suspension of one LIQUID in another (not particles).
moles of solute/liters of solution
Weight of solute in given volume of solution.
Weight per Volume
Weight/volume of solute in solution.
Molecular weight in grams of that molecule, compound, or element.
6.02 x 10
Concentration in which the # of molecules is unequal and the weight of solute is equal.
Concentration in which the # of molecules is equal and the weight of solute is unequal.
Outermost orbital where the bonding action is.
Rule stating 8 electrons in the outer shell makes the element stable.
An energy relationship between electrons in the reacting toms.
Another word for stable.
Another word for unstable.
Type of bond involving the transfer or exchange of electrons.
Type of bond involving the sharing of electrons.
Type of bond involving an attraction between covalently linked H
and negative pole of another molecule.
Different from one side to another; asymmetrical.
Carry a charge due to an unequal number of protons and electrons.
The transfer of electrons from one atom to another (involving ions).
What are the strongest bonds? Why?
Covalent bonds; they do not dissociate in water.
Symmetrical; the same on one side as the other.
Water contains what type of bond?
Properties of water (H
Liquid is denser than solid (so ice floats)
Adhesion & cohesion
High heat capacity
High heat of vaporization
Protective cushion around organs
A chemical reaction involving the breaking down of components.
A chemical reaction involving the combining of components.
Classes of reactions
Singular, similar subunit.
Group of monomers.
What determines the direction of a reaction?
Law of Mass Action (side of equation with greater quantity of reactants dominates)
The gaining of a negative charge, the gaining of an electron.
The gaining of a positive charge, the loss of an electron.
Reactions in which electrons are often transferred as hydrogen atoms.
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
A positive ion.
A negative ion.
Reaction rate is affected by...
Size of particles
Reaction are due to molecular motion, or ____.
Biochemistry not involving carbon.
Biochemistry involving carbon.
Elements of a carbohydrate.
Fat cells are _____% water.
Why does water make a great solvent?
It is polar.
Absorbing and releasing a certain amount of heat before changing temperature.
Taking a certain amount of energy (heat) to break the (hydrogen) bonds between H
Heat of vaporization
Why do salts separate in water?
The polar nature of water overpowers the ionic bond of the salt.
Ionic compound containing cation (not H
) and anion (not OH
); dissociates into components in water.
Dissociates in water and yields H
and anions; low on pH scale; proton (H
Dissociates in water and yields OH
and cations; high on pH scale; proton (H
Each level on pH scale is a ____ change.
10x (10 times)
This element is electroneutral and small.
The removing of water to combine monomers into polymers (aka polymerization).
The addition of water to break apart polymers into monomers.
What does CHO mean?
The general formula for carbs (sugars).
(n=the number of carbon atoms)
Carbs disperse ___ in water.
Are carbs hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
General formula for monosaccarides.
glucose + fructose
sucrose (table sugar)
glucose + galactose
lactose (sugar in milk)
glucose + glucose
maltose (sugar in grain products)
energy storage in plants (a polysaccharide)
structural molecule of plant cell walls; not digestible by humans (we cannot break it down)
energy storage in animals; liver synthesizes after a meal and breaks down between meals
____ are sweet to taste; ____ cannot be tasted
saccharides & disaccharides; polysaccharides
Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
Triglycerides "E" are composed of ____ joined to three ____ by means of ____.
Glycerol; fatty acids; dehydration synthesis
Phospholipids have ____ heads and ____ tails.
Hydrophobic (lipid) ; hydrophilic (phosphate)
What are the main storage of fats (the most efficient fuel system and nonpolar)?
All ____ are derived from cholesterol.
Hormone-like chemical between cells.
Important component of cell membranes (for rigidity).
Helps with "fight" or "flight"
The ____ of the protein is important to the way it operates.
Determines the structure and thus function of proteins.
The properties of the amino acids are determined by the ___ group.
R - "radical"
A dipeptide is two ____ held together by a _____.
amino acids; peptide bond
The 4 shapes of proteins:
This protein is a quaternary shape; a conjugated protein; contains a ring called a "heme moiety"
These protein groups are where oxygen is kept/
Lower the activation energy required to get a chemical reaction to take place; are used over and over again (there is no breakdown).
Are highly specific (there is only one for a certain reaction).
Reactions occur at astonishing speed (millions of molecules per minute).
We modify what is going on by the __________ available.
Number of enzymes
______ enables other enzymes to work.
Can be moderated by the presence or lack of enzymes.
Amino acids that you can get from other amino acids (the body can produce them).
Nonessential amino acids
a pentose sugar
nitrogen-containing base (A, G, C, U, T)
DNA must ______ before it _____.
The structure of DNA.
Is made from DNA and is much shorter; made in teh nucleus but find the themselves out into the cytoplasm.
A nucleotide that is the energy currency of the body.
A _____ group is added to ADP to make ___; it is made on an as-needed basis and used up in about _____ seconds.
phosphate; ATP; 60