A&P Ch 2

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stef1208
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20904
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A&P Ch 2
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2010-06-01 00:31:07
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A&P Chapter 2 - Chemistry
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  1. State of matter that has definite shape and volume.
    Solid
  2. State of matter that has definite volume and changeable shape.
    Liquid
  3. State of matter that has changeable shape and volume.
    Gas
  4. Energy in action.
    Kinetic energy
  5. Stored energy; energy of position.
    Potential energy
  6. Form of energy stored in the bonds of chemical substances (between atoms & molecules).
    Chemical energy
  7. Form of energy in the movement of charged particles.
    Electrical energy
  8. Form of energy directly involved in moving matter (involving movement).
    Mechanical energy
  9. Form of energy in (electromagnetic) waves.
    Radiant energy
  10. Conversion of energy forms releases ____.
    heat
  11. How many nanometers in one meter?
    1 billion
  12. The number of ____defines the element.
    protons
  13. 98.5% of the human body is made up of these elements.
    • Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Calcium, Phosphorus
    • (OCHNCaP)
  14. The human body is 60-70% ____.
    water (H2O)
  15. These elements are stored in the bones of the body.
    Calcium & Phosphorus
  16. An electroneutral atom has an ___ number of protons as electrons.
    equal
  17. How big is the nucleus of an atom?
    10-15 m
  18. Which element doesn't have a neutron?
    Hydrogen
  19. The sum of atomic weights of atoms.
    Molecular weight
  20. An isotope has a change in the number of ____.
    Neutrons
  21. The "decimal" weight listed under the element in the periodic table is ___.
    Average weight of all isotopes.
  22. Half of a substance has degraded to something else over a certain period of time.
    Half-life
  23. Chemical bond (combination) of 2 or more of the same element.
    Molecule
  24. A chemical bond (combination) of 2 or more different elements.
    Compound
  25. The smallest particle of a compound that still exhibits the specific characteristics of a compound.
    Molecule
  26. Combination that is physically intermixed (not chemical) and is easily separable by non-chemical means.
    Mixture
  27. A mixture containing a solvent and a solute (particles < 1 nm in size) that is transparent and remains mixed.
    Solution
  28. Mixture of protein and water; changes from liquid to gel withing and between cells' cloudy and remains mixed.
    Colloid
  29. Mixture in which particles are >100 nm, is cloudy or opaque in appearance, and separates on standing (lighter stuff on the top, heavier stuff on the bottom).
    Suspension
  30. Suspension of one LIQUID in another (not particles).
    Emulsion
  31. moles of solute/liters of solution
    molarity
  32. Weight of solute in given volume of solution.
    Weight per Volume
  33. Weight/volume of solute in solution.
    Percentage
  34. Molecular weight in grams of that molecule, compound, or element.
    1 mole
  35. Avogadro's number
    6.02 x 1023
  36. Concentration in which the # of molecules is unequal and the weight of solute is equal.
    Percentage
  37. Concentration in which the # of molecules is equal and the weight of solute is unequal.
    Molar
  38. Outermost orbital where the bonding action is.
    Valence shell
  39. Rule stating 8 electrons in the outer shell makes the element stable.
    Octet rule
  40. An energy relationship between electrons in the reacting toms.
    Chemical bond
  41. Another word for stable.
    Inert
  42. Another word for unstable.
    Reactive
  43. Type of bond involving the transfer or exchange of electrons.
    Ionic bond
  44. Type of bond involving the sharing of electrons.
    Covalent bond
  45. Type of bond involving an attraction between covalently linked H+ and negative pole of another molecule.
    Hydrogen bond
  46. Different from one side to another; asymmetrical.
    Polarity
  47. Carry a charge due to an unequal number of protons and electrons.
    Ions
  48. The transfer of electrons from one atom to another (involving ions).
    Ionization
  49. What are the strongest bonds? Why?
    Covalent bonds; they do not dissociate in water.
  50. Symmetrical; the same on one side as the other.
    Nonpolar
  51. Water contains what type of bond?
    Hydrogen bond
  52. Properties of water (H2O)
    • Liquid is denser than solid (so ice floats)
    • Surface tension
    • Adhesion & cohesion
    • High heat capacity
    • High heat of vaporization
    • Polar
    • Protective cushion around organs
  53. A chemical reaction involving the breaking down of components.
    Catabolic (Decomposition)
  54. A chemical reaction involving the combining of components.
    Anabolic (Synthesis)
  55. Classes of reactions
    • Decomposition
    • Synthesis
    • Exchange
  56. Singular, similar subunit.
    Monomer
  57. Group of monomers.
    Polymer
  58. What determines the direction of a reaction?
    Law of Mass Action (side of equation with greater quantity of reactants dominates)
  59. The gaining of a negative charge, the gaining of an electron.
    Reduction
  60. The gaining of a positive charge, the loss of an electron.
    Oxidation
  61. Reactions in which electrons are often transferred as hydrogen atoms.
    Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.
  62. A positive ion.
    Cation
  63. A negative ion.
    Anion
  64. Reaction rate is affected by...
    • Concentration
    • Temperature
    • Catalysts (enzymes)
    • Size of particles
  65. Reaction are due to molecular motion, or ____.
    collisions
  66. Biochemistry not involving carbon.
    Inorganic
  67. Biochemistry involving carbon.
    Organic
  68. Elements of a carbohydrate.
    CHO
  69. Fat cells are _____% water.
    20-40%
  70. Why does water make a great solvent?
    It is polar.
  71. Absorbing and releasing a certain amount of heat before changing temperature.
    Heat capacity
  72. Taking a certain amount of energy (heat) to break the (hydrogen) bonds between H2O molecules.
    Heat of vaporization
  73. Why do salts separate in water?
    The polar nature of water overpowers the ionic bond of the salt.
  74. Ionic compound containing cation (not H+) and anion (not OH-); dissociates into components in water.
    Salt
  75. Dissociates in water and yields H+ and anions; low on pH scale; proton (H+) donor.
    Acid
  76. Dissociates in water and yields OH- and cations; high on pH scale; proton (H+) acceptor.
    Base
  77. Each level on pH scale is a ____ change.
    10x (10 times)
  78. This element is electroneutral and small.
    Carbon
  79. The removing of water to combine monomers into polymers (aka polymerization).
    Dehydration Synthesis
  80. The addition of water to break apart polymers into monomers.
    Hydrolysis
  81. What does CHO mean?
    Carbohydrate
  82. Water-loving
    Hydrophilic
  83. Water-fearing
    Hydrophobic
  84. The general formula for carbs (sugars).
    (CH2O)n (n=the number of carbon atoms)
  85. Carbs disperse ___ in water.
    evenly
  86. Are carbs hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
    Hydrophilic
  87. General formula for monosaccarides.
    C6H12O6
  88. glucose + fructose
    sucrose (table sugar)
  89. glucose + galactose
    lactose (sugar in milk)
  90. glucose + glucose
    maltose (sugar in grain products)
  91. energy storage in plants (a polysaccharide)
    starch
  92. structural molecule of plant cell walls; not digestible by humans (we cannot break it down)
    cellulose
  93. energy storage in animals; liver synthesizes after a meal and breaks down between meals
    glycogen
  94. ____ are sweet to taste; ____ cannot be tasted
    saccharides & disaccharides; polysaccharides
  95. Are lipids hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
    Hydrophobic
  96. Triglycerides "E" are composed of ____ joined to three ____ by means of ____.
    Glycerol; fatty acids; dehydration synthesis
  97. Phospholipids have ____ heads and ____ tails.
    Hydrophobic (lipid) ; hydrophilic (phosphate)
  98. What are the main storage of fats (the most efficient fuel system and nonpolar)?
    Triglycerides
  99. All ____ are derived from cholesterol.
    Steroids
  100. Hormone-like chemical between cells.
    Eicosanoids
  101. Important component of cell membranes (for rigidity).
    Cholesterol
  102. Helps with "fight" or "flight"
    corticol
  103. The ____ of the protein is important to the way it operates.
    shape
  104. Determines the structure and thus function of proteins.
    Amino acids
  105. The properties of the amino acids are determined by the ___ group.
    R - "radical"
  106. A dipeptide is two ____ held together by a _____.
    amino acids; peptide bond
  107. The 4 shapes of proteins:
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quarternary
  108. This protein is a quaternary shape; a conjugated protein; contains a ring called a "heme moiety"
    Hemoglobin
  109. These protein groups are where oxygen is kept/
    "Heme groups"
  110. Lower the activation energy required to get a chemical reaction to take place; are used over and over again (there is no breakdown).
    Enzymes
  111. Are highly specific (there is only one for a certain reaction).
    Enzymes
  112. Reactions occur at astonishing speed (millions of molecules per minute).
    Enzyme reaction
  113. We modify what is going on by the __________ available.
    Number of enzymes
  114. ______ enables other enzymes to work.
    Fever (temperature)
  115. Can be moderated by the presence or lack of enzymes.
    Regulation
  116. Amino acids that you can get from other amino acids (the body can produce them).
    Nonessential amino acids
  117. Nucleotides contain:
    • a pentose sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogen-containing base (A, G, C, U, T)
  118. DNA must ______ before it _____.
    replicate; divides
  119. The structure of DNA.
    Double-helix
  120. Is made from DNA and is much shorter; made in teh nucleus but find the themselves out into the cytoplasm.
    RNA
  121. A nucleotide that is the energy currency of the body.
    ATP
  122. A _____ group is added to ADP to make ___; it is made on an as-needed basis and used up in about _____ seconds.
    phosphate; ATP; 60

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