SUR 105 - Test 5

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SUR 105 - Test 5
2013-03-24 00:57:32

cardiac surgeries
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  1. abnormal heartbeat
  2. slow heart rate, usually under 60 beats per minute
  3. intentional stopping of the heart during cardiac surgery
  4. congenital narrowing or stricture in the descending thoracic aorta
  5. phase of cardiac cycle when ventricles contract
  6. uncoordinated muscular activity in heart muscle which results in "quivering" rather than pumping action - results in pooling of blood
  7. type of aneurysm that involves entire circumference of a blood vessel
    fusiform aneurysm
  8. necrosis and death of tissue related to obstruction of blood flow
  9. reduced blood supply to tissue
  10. enclosed cavity in the chest that contains the heart, large vessels, trachea, esophagus and lymph nodes
  11. type of aneurysm in which a saclike formation with narrow neck projects from side of the artery
    saccular aneurysm
  12. narrowing of hollow structure such as blood vessel or duct
  13. incision made into the sternum
  14. relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle when ventricles are filling with blood
  15. fast heart rate, usually over 120 beats per minute
  16. incision made into thoracic cavity
  17. 2 upper chambers of the heart
    • right atrium
    • left atrium
  18. 2 lower chambers of heart
    • right ventricle
    • left ventricle
  19. cavity that contains the heart and its great vessels, lungs and associated respiratory structures, mediastinum, and portion of esophagus
  20. closed cavity containing the heart
  21. double-layered membrane that encloses the heart
  22. outer pericardium
    parietal pericardium
  23. inner pericardium
    visceral pericardium
  24. 3 layers of wall of heart
    • epicardium (outer layer)
    • myocardium (middle layer)
    • endocardium (inner layer)
  25. specialized muscle tissue capable of generating electrical impulses, which cause the heart to contract
  26. valve that lies on the right side of the heart
  27. valve that lies on the left side of the heart
    bicuspid (mitral)
  28. connective tissue that attaches AV valve leaflets to the papillary muscle of the ventricles
    chordae tendineae
  29. initiates cardiac cycle and is sometimes called the heart's pacemaker
    sinoatrial (SA) node
  30. interventional radiology procedure that involves insertion of a cardiac catheter into the heart chambers and large vessels
    cardiac catheterization
  31. test that demonstrates movement of blood through the valves and can be used to measure the ejection fraction, etc.
    ventricular angiography
  32. short length of rubber tubing either commercially prepared or cut from a straight urinary cath
    Rumel tourniquet
  33. method of preparing graft to prevent leakage
  34. how much blood is withdrawn from patient for preclotting?
    30 to 50 mL
  35. 2 commonly used prosthetic valves
    • St. Jude Medical (mechanical)
    • Hancock porcine (biological)
  36. what does a pacemaker do?
    produces electrical impulses that stimulate the heart muscle
  37. where are temporary electrodes placed?
    implanted on the surface of the heart
  38. 2 types of permanent electrodes
    • endocardial
    • epicardial
  39. what does a defibrillator do?
    electricity from the defibrillator shocks heart cells, converting the rhythm back to normal
  40. cannula that is straight ended and has multiple holes in the distal tip - used to shunt blood from the heart
    venous cannula
  41. cannula that may have straight or angled tip to direct blood toward descending thoracic aorta - carries oxygenated blood
    aortic cannula
  42. cannula that carries oxygenated blood, tapered to match size of artery, and has beveled end to allow easier insertion
    femoral arterial cannula
  43. cannula that has a cuff near its tip to prevent from being inserted too far into coronary arteries - used to infuse cardioplegic solution directly into the heart
    coronary antegrade perfusion cannula
  44. drains air and blood within the heart and prevents accumulation of blood
    left ventricular sump (vent) catheter
  45. used to decompress left ventricle and remove intracardiac air
    right superior pulmonary vent catheter
  46. anticoagulant that prevents conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
    heparin sodium
  47. drug administered to reverse effects of heparin
    protamine sulfate
  48. drug commonly used in treatment of ventricular arrhythmia
  49. drug used for cardiac stimulation - cannot start heart that has stopped beating, but can stimulate adrenergic receptors
  50. mixture of potassium chloride, lidocaine, dextrose, insulin, albumin, tromethamine, and Plasmanate
    cardioplegic solution
  51. 2 methods of administering cardioplegic solution
    • antegrade cardioplegic infusion
    • retrograde cardioplegic infusion
  52. midline incision of sternum used for surgical procedures of the heart and great vessels
    median sternotomy
  53. sutures used for closing the sternum
    six to eight #5 wire sutures
  54. what does cardioplegic solution do?
    stops the heart, reducing energy required by cardiac muscle
  55. why is cardioplegic solution used?
    to protect the cardiac muscle from damage while the aorta is occluded and blood supply is interrupted
  56. why is CABG done?
    to improve circulation to the heart
  57. what is usually used as the bypass graft in CABG?
  58. why are metal rings or radiopaque materials sometimes placed around each vein graft on the aorta?
    they mark the veins in the even cardiac cath is performed in the postop period
  59. procedure in which a series of small-bore, transmural channels are created with laser to perfuse the myocardium
    transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)
  60. goal of TMR
    to increase blood flow to the heart in patients in whom bypass surgery or medical management is not feasible
  61. what does the aortic valve do?
    maintains one-way blood flow from left ventricle to aorta
  62. what type of incision is made to open aorta in aortic valve replacement?
    • transverse
    • occasionally vertical
  63. what causes mitral valve disease?
    • rheumatic heart disease
    • dilation of the annulus
    • ischemic heart disease
    • trauma
    • changes in the tissue that produces regurgitation
  64. heart rate of 240 to 450 beats per minute
    atrial flutter
  65. chaotic, disorganized stimulation of one or both ventricles that does not pump the blood
    ventricular fibrillation
  66. ICDs are used for what types of patients?
    patients susceptible to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia
  67. incisions used for ICDs
    • thoracotomy
    • subxyphoid
    • median sternotomy
    • transvenous
  68. ICD incision most used
  69. selective destruction of diseased conductive tissue to correct atrial fibrillation
    cardiac ablation
  70. goal of pericardial window
    removal of accumulated blood or fluid in the pericardium which can compress the heart and impede filling of ventricles
  71. where is incision made for pericardial window?
    in fourth or fifth intercostal space
  72. why can constrictive pericarditis develop?
    • viral infection
    • tuberculosis
    • chronic pericarditis
  73. what does intraaortic balloon catheter do?
    reduces workload of heart after MI or in patients who cannot be taken off bypass
  74. why is VAD used?
    • to wean patients from cardiopulmonary bypass when other means are ineffective
    • patients awaiting heart transplantation
  75. patients suitable for heart transplant are those with?
    • coronary artery disease
    • congenital heart disease
    • valve disease
    • rejection of previously transplanted heart