SUR 105 - Test 5
Card Set Information
SUR 105 - Test 5
slow heart rate, usually under 60 beats per minute
intentional stopping of the heart during cardiac surgery
congenital narrowing or stricture in the descending thoracic aorta
phase of cardiac cycle when ventricles contract
uncoordinated muscular activity in heart muscle which results in "quivering" rather than pumping action - results in pooling of blood
type of aneurysm that involves entire circumference of a blood vessel
necrosis and death of tissue related to obstruction of blood flow
reduced blood supply to tissue
enclosed cavity in the chest that contains the heart, large vessels, trachea, esophagus and lymph nodes
type of aneurysm in which a saclike formation with narrow neck projects from side of the artery
narrowing of hollow structure such as blood vessel or duct
incision made into the sternum
relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle when ventricles are filling with blood
fast heart rate, usually over 120 beats per minute
incision made into thoracic cavity
2 upper chambers of the heart
2 lower chambers of heart
cavity that contains the heart and its great vessels, lungs and associated respiratory structures, mediastinum, and portion of esophagus
closed cavity containing the heart
double-layered membrane that encloses the heart
3 layers of wall of heart
epicardium (outer layer)
myocardium (middle layer)
endocardium (inner layer)
specialized muscle tissue capable of generating electrical impulses, which cause the heart to contract
valve that lies on the right side of the heart
valve that lies on the left side of the heart
connective tissue that attaches AV valve leaflets to the papillary muscle of the ventricles
initiates cardiac cycle and is sometimes called the heart's pacemaker
sinoatrial (SA) node
interventional radiology procedure that involves insertion of a cardiac catheter into the heart chambers and large vessels
test that demonstrates movement of blood through the valves and can be used to measure the ejection fraction, etc.
short length of rubber tubing either commercially prepared or cut from a straight urinary cath
method of preparing graft to prevent leakage
how much blood is withdrawn from patient for preclotting?
30 to 50 mL
2 commonly used prosthetic valves
St. Jude Medical (mechanical)
Hancock porcine (biological)
what does a pacemaker do?
produces electrical impulses that stimulate the heart muscle
where are temporary electrodes placed?
implanted on the surface of the heart
2 types of permanent electrodes
what does a defibrillator do?
electricity from the defibrillator shocks heart cells, converting the rhythm back to normal
cannula that is straight ended and has multiple holes in the distal tip - used to shunt blood from the heart
cannula that may have straight or angled tip to direct blood toward descending thoracic aorta - carries oxygenated blood
cannula that carries oxygenated blood, tapered to match size of artery, and has beveled end to allow easier insertion
femoral arterial cannula
cannula that has a cuff near its tip to prevent from being inserted too far into coronary arteries - used to infuse cardioplegic solution directly into the heart
coronary antegrade perfusion cannula
drains air and blood within the heart and prevents accumulation of blood
left ventricular sump (vent) catheter
used to decompress left ventricle and remove intracardiac air
right superior pulmonary vent catheter
anticoagulant that prevents conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
drug administered to reverse effects of heparin
drug commonly used in treatment of ventricular arrhythmia
drug used for cardiac stimulation - cannot start heart that has stopped beating, but can stimulate adrenergic receptors
mixture of potassium chloride, lidocaine, dextrose, insulin, albumin, tromethamine, and Plasmanate
2 methods of administering cardioplegic solution
antegrade cardioplegic infusion
retrograde cardioplegic infusion
midline incision of sternum used for surgical procedures of the heart and great vessels
sutures used for closing the sternum
six to eight #5 wire sutures
what does cardioplegic solution do?
stops the heart, reducing energy required by cardiac muscle
why is cardioplegic solution used?
to protect the cardiac muscle from damage while the aorta is occluded and blood supply is interrupted
why is CABG done?
to improve circulation to the heart
what is usually used as the bypass graft in CABG?
why are metal rings or radiopaque materials sometimes placed around each vein graft on the aorta?
they mark the veins in the even cardiac cath is performed in the postop period
procedure in which a series of small-bore, transmural channels are created with laser to perfuse the myocardium
transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)
goal of TMR
to increase blood flow to the heart in patients in whom bypass surgery or medical management is not feasible
what does the aortic valve do?
maintains one-way blood flow from left ventricle to aorta
what type of incision is made to open aorta in aortic valve replacement?
what causes mitral valve disease?
rheumatic heart disease
dilation of the annulus
ischemic heart disease
changes in the tissue that produces regurgitation
heart rate of 240 to 450 beats per minute
chaotic, disorganized stimulation of one or both ventricles that does not pump the blood
ICDs are used for what types of patients?
patients susceptible to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia
incisions used for ICDs
ICD incision most used
selective destruction of diseased conductive tissue to correct atrial fibrillation
goal of pericardial window
removal of accumulated blood or fluid in the pericardium which can compress the heart and impede filling of ventricles
where is incision made for pericardial window?
in fourth or fifth intercostal space
why can constrictive pericarditis develop?
what does intraaortic balloon catheter do?
reduces workload of heart after MI or in patients who cannot be taken off bypass
why is VAD used?
to wean patients from cardiopulmonary bypass when other means are ineffective
patients awaiting heart transplantation
patients suitable for heart transplant are those with?
coronary artery disease
congenital heart disease
rejection of previously transplanted heart