Alcamo's Ch 9

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medic11
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209075
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Alcamo's Ch 9
Updated:
2013-03-26 14:04:10
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BI 301
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Ch 9 cards
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  1. What are the 2 ways genetic info in prokaryotes can be transferred?
    Vertically or horizontally
  2. Vertical gene transfer is transfer of genetic info fr where to where?
    Parent cell to daughter cell
  3. Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of DNA fr where to where?
    Donor cell to recipient cell
  4. Describe transformation.
    Uptake of free DNA fragment fr surrounding environment & the expression of genetic info in the recipient cell
  5. DNA transformation involves the transfer of DNA via
    A)pili
    B)a restriction endonuclease
    C)a bacteriophage
    D)naked DNA in solution
    D) Naked DNA in solution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. The transfer of genetic material between bacteria in direct physical contact is called
    A)conjugation
    B)transformation
    C)transduction
    A) conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The transfer of a naked fragment of DNA between bacteria is called
    A)conjugation
    B)transduction
    C)transformation
    C) transformation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. The transport of bacterial DNA to other bacteria via bacteriaphages is called
    A)transformation
    B)transduction
    C)conjugation
    B) transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Horizontal transfer can best be described as:
    A)the transmission of genetic information from parent to offspring
    B)the transmission of genetic information from one independent, mature organism to another
    C)the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template
    B) the transmission of genetic information fr one independent, mature organism to another
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Plasmids can best be described as:
    A)small, circular DNA molecules that can exist independently of chromosomes commonly found in bacteria
    B)a complex membrane structure that covers the chromosome of bacteria
    C)another name for a chloroplast
    A) small circular DNA molecules that can exist independently of chromosomes commonly found in bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. F factor plasmids play a major role in what bacterial process?
    A)transduction
    B)replication
    C)conjugation
    C) conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. This type of plasmid makes the host more pathogenic
    A)virulence plasmid
    B)F factors
    C)metabolic plasmid
    A) virulence plasmid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Mobile genetic elements that carry the genes required for integration into host chromosomes
    A)replicon
    B)plasmids
    C)transposons
    C) transporons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following are true in regards to F+ x F- mating events?
    A)DNA is transferred from F- to F+ cells
    B)DNA is transferred from F+ to F- cells
    C)No DNA is transferred because F- cells are unable to perform conjugation
    B) DNA is transferred fr F+ to F- cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. A bacterial cell that is able to take up naked DNA is said to be
    A)liable
    B)infected
    C)competent
    C) competent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The relationship between a virus and host where no new viral particles are produces and the viral genome is replicated along with host chromosome
    A)lysogeny
    B)lysis
    C)transformation
    A) lysogeny
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following can be used as a tool by microbial genetisists?
    A)plasmids
    B)bacteriophage
    C)transposable elements
    D)all of the above
    D) all of the above
  18. Recombination of virus genomes occurs
    A)by transformation
    B)when two viruses with homologous chromosomes infect a host cell simultaneously
    C)by transduction
    B) when 2 viruses w/homologous chromosomes infect a host cell simultaneously
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. These are bacterial proteins that destroy other bacteria
    A)viruses
    B)transposable elements
    C)bacteriocins
    C) bacteriocins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Transformation was first described by whom, when?
    Frederick Griffith in 1928
  21. ___ is the ability of a recipient cell to take up DNA fr the environment.
    Competence
  22. What is the term given to cell to cell contact for horizontal gene transfer?
    Conjugation
  23. In conjugation, how does the donor cell transfer DNA to the recipient?
    Donor cell forms a conjugation pilus to make contact with the recipient
  24. What process involves viruses as agents for the horizontal transfer of DNA?
    Transduction
  25. How are chromosomal DNA fragments carried in transduction?
    A virus or bacteriophage carries the fragment fr donor to recepient
  26. What 3 things do virulent phages do in the lytic cycle?
    • Destroy the host chromosome
    • Replicate themselves
    • Destroy the cell
  27. In the ___ cycle, temperate phages integrate their DNA into host chromosomes as a ____.
    • Lysogenic
    • Prophage
  28. A recombinant DNA molecule contains DNA fragments....
    Spliced together fr 2 or more organisms
  29. What does genetic engineering involve?
    Changing genetic material in an organism to alter its traits or products
  30. How do genetic engineers obtain specific fragments of DNA?
    • By cutting short stretches of nucleotides w/a restriction endonuclease
    • They are then joined by DNA ligase
  31. What is a DNA probe?
    Single strand of DNA that recognize & bind w/a specific nucleotide sequence of a pathogen
  32. What is microbial genomics?
    The discipline of sequencing, analyzing and comparing microbial genomes
  33. The ability to ID unculturable organisms is opening up the new discipline of ___.
    Metagenomics
  34. Which of the following involves DNA polymerase activity?
    A) Replication
    B)Translation
    C) Transcription
    A) Replication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Which of the following processes requires a DNA ligase to seal Ocazaki fragments?
    A) Replication
    B) Transcription
    C)Translation
    A) Replication
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Which of the following processes is DNA dependent RNA synthesis process?
    A) Transcription
    B)Translation
    C) Replication
    A) Transcription
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. RNA polymerase starts starts ___ at a ctrl sequence called a promoter found on the template strand?
    A)Translation
    B) Transcription
    C) Replication
    B) Transcription
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. The RNA polymerase transcribes the template, substituting ___ for ___ where adenine appears in the DNA template strand.
    Uracil for thymine
  39. What is DNA recombination?
    A natural mechanism for DNA transfer fr one microorganism to another
  40. Which of the following includes the attachment of viral DNA to the bacterial chromosome?

    A) Transduction
    B) Transformation
    C) Conjugation
    A) transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. Which of the following involves a transfer of genes via direct contact?
    A) Transformation
    B) Transduction
    C) Conjugation
    C) Conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Which of the following occurs in generalized and specialized forms?
    A) Conjugation
    B) Transduction
    C) Transformation
    B) Transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which of the following requires competent cells be available?
    A) Conjugation
    B) Transduction
    C) Transformation
    C) Transformation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. Which of the following carries viral genes fr bacterial chromosomes?
    A) Transduction
    B) Conjugation
    C) Transformation
    A) Transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which of the following was first observed by Griffith in pneumococci?
    A) Transduction
    B) Conjugation
    C) Transformation
    C) Transformation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which of the following involves F+ cells as donor cells?
    A) Transformation
    B) Conjugation
    C) Transduction
    B) Conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following utilizes a pilus?
    A) Transduction
    B) Conjugation
    C) Transformation 
    B) conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which occurs when naked pieces of DNA are taken up fr the environment?
    A) Conjugation
    B) Transduction
    C) Transformation
    C) Transformation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Which involves an unencapsulated bacterium becoming encapsulated?
    A) Transformation
    B) Conjugation
    C) Transduction
    A) Transformation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which follows the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage?
    A) Transformation
    B) Transduction
    C) Conjugation
    B) transduction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which involves plasmids moving between live bacteria?
    A) Conjugation
    B) Transduction
    C) Transformation
    A) Conjugation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. A viral genome integrated into a host genome is known as a ___.
    Prophage
    F⁺ cell
    Plasmid
    Prophage
  53. A cell capable of being transformed is considered to be ___.
    Competent
  54. Which is a cell w/conjugation pilus; plasmid in the cytoplasm?
    Plasmid
    F⁺ cell
    Prophage
    F⁺ cell
  55. The ___ ___ are events in a cell as virus particles are replicated and released.
    Lytic Cycle
  56. A hollow structure for DNA transfer is known as a ___.
    Pilus
  57. Which is a cell that conjugates; donates bacterial DNA genes?
    Prophage
    Hfr
    F⁺ cell
    Hfr
  58. A condition in which a viral infection does not cause immediate cell death is known as ___.
    Lysogeny
  59. A closed circle DNA w/few genes and are nonessential to the cell is known as a what?
    Plasmid
  60. T or F; Griffith's landmark experiments of 1928 demonstrated that
    bacterial recombinations with viruses take place so long as the viruses are
    lysogenic.
    • False
    • Response:  Griffith's landmark experiments of 1928 demonstrated that an unknown transforming substance passed from dead S strain to live R strain bacteria.
  61. T or F; Genetic recombination is the alteration of the bacterial
    chromosome by a change in its nucleotide sequence.
    • False
    • Response:  Genetic recombination is the transfer of plasmid or chromosomal DNA fragments laterally from donor to recipient cell.
  62. T or F; Transformations are generally more common than conjugations because DNA passes easily through the recipient cell's wall and membrane.
    • False
    • Response:  Transformations are generally less common than conjugations because DNA does not pass easily through the recipient cell's wall and membrane.
  63. T or F; Transformation appears to be the major mechanism for antibiotic transfer.
    • False
    • Response:  Conjugation appears to be the major mechanism for antibiotic transfer.
  64. Name 2 terms that pertain to transformation.
    • Griffith, 1928
    • Cell Competence
  65. Name 5 terms related to conjugation.
    • Conjugation pilus
    • F⁺ donor cell
    • F⁻ recipient cell
    • F factor
    • Rolling circle mechanism
  66. What is F factor?
    A plasmid containing about 100 genes
  67. Name 7 terms related to transduction.
    • Viruses as agent for HGT
    • Bacteriophage
    • Lytic & Lysogenic cycles
    • Virulent phages
    • Prophages
    • Temperate phages
    • Generalized & specialized transduction

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