Endocrinology

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Author:
ncrook
ID:
209093
Filename:
Endocrinology
Updated:
2013-05-03 02:07:19
Tags:
Ovaries Placenta Testes
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Description:
Ovaries, Placenta, Testes
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  1. What are the ovaries part of? (What axis?)
    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
  2. What secretes the follicle stimulating hormone?
    Anterior pituitary
  3. What does the follicle stimulating hormone do?
    • Stimulates growth of the ovarian follicles
    • Increases the plasma estrogen level
  4. What secretes the luteinizing hormone?
    Anterior pituitary
  5. What does the luteinizing hormone do?
    Stimulates production of progesterone at ovulation
  6. How are FSH and LH synthesis regulated?
    Estrogen and progesterone exert negative feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary
  7. Name the principal female sex hormones
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
  8. What secretes estrogen?
    • Ovarian follicles
    • Placenta in pregnancy
  9. Name the 3 primary estrogens
    • Estradiol-17 beta
    • Estrone
    • Estradiol
  10. Name the principal estrogen synthesized by the ovaries
    Estradiol
  11. What secretes progesterone?
    • Ovarian follicles
    • Corpus luteum following ovulation
    • Placenta in pregnancy
  12. What hormone promotes development and maintains the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina; it is responsible for development and maintenance of secondary female sex characteristics?
    Estrogen
  13. What is secreted by the corpus leteum following ovulation, and in prenancy is secreted by the placenta to maintain the uterus?
    Progesterone
  14. In the 1st half of the menstrual cycle, what hormone promotes growth of ovarian follicles and an increase in esterogen?
    FSH
  15. What hormone peaks a the midcycle of the menstrual cycle?
    • Estrogen
    • LH
  16. What hormone triggers ovulation during the menstrual cycle?
    LH
  17. What is the clinical significance of hyperestrinism in females?
    • Precocious puberty: ovarian tumor, hypothalamic tumor, adrenal tumor, disorders of the hypothalamus or pituitary
    • Infertility and irregular menses: polycystic ovaries, estrogen producing ovarian tumors, disorders of the hypothalamus or pituitary
    • Postmenopausal bleeding: cervial or endometrial carcinoma, estrogen producing ovarian tumors, exogenous estrogen consumption
  18. What is the clinical significance of hyperestrinism in males?
    • Testicular atrophy
    • Enlargement of the breasts
  19. What is the clinical significance of hypoestrinism?
    • Ovarian insufficiency: can be primary or secondary to disorders of the hypothalamus or pituitary
    • Delayed puberty: primary amenorrhea due to lack of ovarian functionor secondary disorders of the hypothalamus or pituitary
    • Amenorrhea: occurs at menopause, radiation, chemotherapy, severe stress, intense athletic training, excessive weight loss
    • Turner syndrome: genetic defect in females where there is partial or complete loss of one of the 2 X chromosomes, resulting in nonfunctioning ovaries
  20. What is the clinical significance of Hyperprogesteronemia?
    Prevents mentrual cycle from occurring
  21. What is the clinical significance of hypoprogesteronemia?
    • Infertility
    • Abortion of the fetus
  22. What is the main source of estrogen synthesis during pregnancy, and what does it make?
    • Placenta is the main source of estrogen synthesis
    • Making primarily estriol
  23. What is included in the triple test?
    • Alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP)
    • Unconjugated estriol (uE3)
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
  24. What is the triple test used for and what are the results that suggest it?
    • Helps to estimate the risk of Down syndrome
    • Decreased AFP
    • Decreased uE3
    • Increased hCG
  25. What is suggestive in pregnant women if:
    Decreased AFP
    Decreased uE3
    Increased hCG
    Down syndrome
  26. What is included in the Quadruple test?
    • Alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP)
    • Unconjugated estriol (uE3)
    • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
    • Inhibin A
  27. What is suggestive in pregnant women if:
    Decreased AFP
    Decreased uE3
    Increased hCG
    Increased Inhibin A
    Down Syndrome
  28. What is the function of Inhibin A?
    Inhibit production of FSH
  29. Name what the placenta synthesizes and secretes
    • Estrogens
    • Progesterone
    • Humon chorionic gonadotropin
    • Human placental lactogen
  30. What is the clinical significance of increased hCG?
    • Hyadatidiform mole
    • Choriocarcinoma
    • Pre-eclamptic toxemia
  31. What is the clinical significance of decreased hCG?
    • Threatened abortion
    • Ectopic pregnancy
  32. What else is hCG monitored for, besides pregnancy?
    Monitor sucess of surgery and chemotherapy
  33. What 2 things work together to produce estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy?
    • Human placental lactogen (HPL)
    • hCG
  34. What is the clinical significance of decreased HPL (human placental lactogen)?
    • Placental malfunction
    • Potential fetal distress
  35. What axis are the testes part of?
    Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
  36. What hormone stimulates spermatogenesis?
    FSH
  37. What stimulates the production of testosterone?
    LH (luteinizing hormone)
  38. What is the clinical significance of abnormal synthesis of testosterone?
    • Disorder of the testes (primary disorder)
    • Disorder of pituitary or hypothalamus (secondary disorder)
  39. What is the principal male sex hormone?
    Testosterone
  40. What is the function of testosterone?
    • Promotes development and maintains the male reproductive system
    • Responsible for the development and maintenance of secondary male sex characteristics
  41. What is the clinical significance of hyperandrogenemia?
    • Prepubertal males: precocious puberty occurs
    • Adult males: no observable symptoms
    • Female children: development of male secondary characteristics, virilization occurs
  42. What condition:
    Increased 17-OHP
    Increased ACTH
    Decreased Cortisol
    Enzyme defect of 21-Hydroxylase
    Prevents cortisol production
    Results in accumulation of cortisol precursors, including 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP)
    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
  43. What is the clinical significance of hypoandrogenemia?
    • Adult males: Impotence, loss of secondary sex characteristics
    • Prepubertal males: delayed puberty
    • Klinefelter syndrome (extra X chromosome)

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