Neuro Exam 3.2

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brau2308
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209100
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Neuro Exam 3.2
Updated:
2013-03-23 21:55:03
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neuroscience neurology neuroanatomy
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review of lecture 2 for neuro exam 3
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  1. Does lesion in a pathway cause an ipsolateral or contralateral effect?
    The reference point is always the lesion
  2. Which types of neurons are damaged and where are they located in the spinal cord?
  3. What modalities would be lost?
  4. Where would the loss of modalities occur?
  5. Where does decussation occur?
  6. Where do 1st order sensory neurons originate?
  7. Where do 2nd order sensory neurons originate?
  8. Where do 3rd order sensory neurons originate?
  9. Which neurons pass through the internal capsule?
  10. Understand that all sensory info must be processed by the thalamus (except smell)...
    before you can consciously perceive it
  11. All sensory info can be responded to reflexively at the spinal cord or the brain stem level w/o being:
    consciously perceived.
  12. What is the pathway of information?
    external energy-->receptors on distal ends of sensory neurons-->action potentials-->afferent sensory neurons of PNS
  13. What are the types of external energy?
    • thermal
    • electrical
    • mechanical
    • chemical
    • electromagnetic
  14. What happens at the receptors on distal ends of sensory neurons?
    transduction of energy
  15. What type of process are action potentials?
    electrochemical
  16. What are some examples of afferent sensory neurons of the PNS?
    • cranial and spinal nerves
    • nociceptors
    • mechanoreceptors
  17. For the purpose of sensory pathways, what is considered general sensation?
    • conscious proprioception
    • two-point discrimination
    • fine touch
    • crude touch
    • nociception
    • temperature
    • vibration
    • movement sense
    • stereognosis
  18. How many general sensations apply to somatic receptive fields?
    all
  19. How many general sensations apply to visceral receptive fields?
    most except for two-point discrimination, stereognosis, conscious proprioception
  20. What is the spinothalamic tract responsible for?
    noxious stimulation, pain, temperature, crude touch
  21. Where does the spinothalamic tract receive input from?
    UE, LE, trunk, abdomen, and pelvis
  22. As the spinothalamic tract ascends the spinal cord, it adds more and more:
    2nd order sensory neurons
  23. Is the spinothalamic tract larger at the bottom or the top?
    top
  24. Where are 1st order neurons of the spinothalamic tract located?
    in spinal nn or nerves of ANS
  25. What type of receptive fields are found in the 1st order neurons of the spinothalamic tract?
    somatic and visceral
  26. What are found in the 1st order neurons of the spinothalamic tract?
    cell bodies in DRG of spinal nerves
  27. What do 1st order neurons of the spinothalamic tract synapse with?
    2nd order in dorsal horn; may or may not synapse w/ interneurons
  28. Where do 2nd order neurons of the spinothalamic tract decussate?
    immediately at point of entry to contralateral side and ascend as spinothalamic tract
  29. What do the 2nd order neurons of the spinothalamic tract become?
    spinal lemniscus
  30. When do the 2nd order neurons of the spinothalamic tract become the spinal lemniscus?
    upon entry to the tegmentum of the brainstem
  31. After the spinal lemniscus continues through the tegmentum it terminates w/:
    thalamus at ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL=R nucleus)
  32. Where do 3rd order neurons of the spinothalamic tract synapse?
    b/w 2nd and 3rd order in thalamus
  33. Where do 3rd order neurons of spinothalamic tract ascend?
    through internal capsule to terminate in postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe
  34. What modalities are lost if spinothalamic tract is cut?
    • lose perception (pain, temp, crude touch) of contralateral side below level of lesion, if tract is cut once it enters spinal cord
    • lose perception of ipsilateral side if tract is cut at a spinal nerve
  35. It is called the spinothalamic tract of the left side of the spinal cord
    NOT the left spinothalamic tract!!
  36. What is the dorsal column system responsible for?
    • conscious proprioception
    • two-point discrimination
    • vibration
    • movement sense
    • fine touch
    • stereognosis
  37. Where are 1st order sensory neurons found?
    spinal nerves
  38. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order neurons of the dorsal column system?
    dorsal root ganglion (DRG)
  39. Where are the receptors of the dorsal column system found?
    • skin
    • subcutaneous tissue
    • muscle
    • tendon
    • joints
  40. What structure does the 1st order neurons of the dorsal column system enter?
    dorsal horn
  41. Do the 1st order neurons of the dorsal column system decussate?
    no
  42. Where does the 1st order neuron of the dorsal column system ascend?
    ipsilaterally in dorsal white column to medulla
  43. Fasciculus gracilis:
    1st order from LE that synapses w/ nucleus gracilis in tegmentum of the medulla (medial)
  44. Fasciculus cuneatus:
    1st order from UE that synapses w/ nucleus cuneatus in tegmentum of the medulla (lateral)
  45. Where do the 2nd order neurons of dorsal column system decussate?
    in medulla
  46. When the 2nd order neuron of the dorsal column system decussates in the medulla it collectively forms what?
    medial lemniscus
  47. Where does the 2nd order neurons of the dorsal column system ascend?
    to tegmentum of brainstem
  48. Where does the 2nd order neurons of the dorsal column system terminate?
    ventrobasal nucleuar complex of thalamus
  49. What do 2nd order neurons of the dorsal column system synapse with?
    3rd order neurons in thalamus
  50. What structure does the 3rd order neuron of the dorsal column system pass through?
    internal capsule
  51. After passing through the internal capsule where does the 3rd order neuron of the dorsal column system go?
    to postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe
  52. What does the 3rd order neuron of dorsal column system do once in the postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe?
    • allows:
    • conscious proprioception
    • two-point discrimination
    • vibration
    • movement sense
    • fine touch
    • stereognosis
  53. What modalities are lost if the dorsal columnĀ  system is cut?
    • loss on ipsilateral side if cut at or before the medulla (dorsal column of SC)
    • loss on contralateral side if cut after the medulla (ex: if lesion is in pons)
  54. What is the spinocerebellar tract responsible for?
    unconscious proprioception
  55. Where are the 1st order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract located?
    spinal nn
  56. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract?
    DRG
  57. Where are the receptors of the 1st order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract?
    • skin
    • muscles
    • tendons
    • joints
  58. Where do the 1st order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract terminate?
    dorsal horn (specifically lamina VII --aka Nucleus dorsalis or Clarke's nucleus) to synapse w/ 2nd order
  59. What are the 2nd order neurons of spinocerebellar tract associated w/?
    T1-L2 levels
  60. What two tracts are there with the 2nd order neurons of spinocerebellar tract?
    anterior and posterior
  61. Does the posterior spinocerebellar tract decussate?
    no
  62. The posterior spinocerebellar tract enters what?
    cerebellum via inferior cerebellar peduncle
  63. Why does the posterior spinocerebellar tract enter the cerebellum?
    to relay info from LE
  64. Does the anterior spinocerebellar tract decussate?
    yes, at point of entry
  65. The anterior spinocerebellar tract enters what?
    cerebellum via superior cerebellar peduncle (superior is primarily efferent--though anterior spinocerebellar tract is an exception to this rule)
  66. Lesions of the 2nd order neurons of the spinocerebellar tract result in:
    loss of motor control (but this is more finesse type so less noticeable clinical symptoms)

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