Neuro Exam 3.3

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brau2308
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209108
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Neuro Exam 3.3
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2013-03-24 15:23:18
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro lecture 3 for exam 3
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  1. Which cranial nerve is the olfactory nerve?
    CN I
  2. Where are the 1st order sensory neurons of the olfactory nerve?
    nasal mucosa
  3. What are the 1st order neurons of the olfactory nerves associated with?
    superior nasal concha and meatus
  4. What structure do the 1st order neurons of the olfactory nerve pass through?
    cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
  5. What do the 1st order neurons of the olfactory nerve synapse with?
    2nd order sensory neurons in olfactory bulbs
  6. What does the olfactory nerve split into?
    medial and lateral stria
  7. What do the medial and lateral stria enter?
    rhinencephalon of forebrain
  8. The 2nd order neurons of medial stria decussate to:
    contralateral side via anterior commissure
  9. Where do the 2nd order neurons of the olfactory nerve terminate?
    various portions of temporal lobe (amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus) --this is where you perceive smell
  10. How many neurons long is the olfactory nerve pathway?
    2 neurons --it is the only sensory modality that doesn't initially process through thalamus before going to cortex
  11. Which cranial nerve is the optic nerve?
    CN II
  12. How many neurons long is the optic nerve pathway?
    4
  13. What are the 1st order neurons of the optic nerve?
    rods and cones
  14. Where are the 1st order neurons of the optic nerve (rods and cones) located?
    retina
  15. What do the 1st order neurons of the optic nerve synapse with?
    2nd order (bipolar cells)
  16. Where are the 2nd order neurons of the optic nerve?
    retina
  17. What do the 2nd order neurons of optic nerve synapse with?
    3rd order sensory neurons (ganglia cells)
  18. Where are 3rd order neurons of optic nerve located?
    retina
  19. What is the optic nerve chiasm?
    3rd order neurons from temporal (lateral) retina stay on same side, 3rd order neurons from nasal (medial) retina decussate (partial decussation)
  20. What does the optic nerve become?
    optic tract
  21. Where do the 3rd order neurons of the optic nerve project to synapse with 4th order?
    project into lateral geniculate body of thalamus
  22. What do the 4th order neurons of the optic nerve collectively form?
    optic radiations
  23. Where do optic radiations travel to?
    visual cortex (area 17) of occipital lobe where images are perceived
  24. Some of the 3rd order sensory neurons of the optic nerve go where?
    superior colliculus and pretectal nucleus of the midbrain for involvement w/ visual reflexes
  25. What is the trigeminal nerve responsible for?
    sensory/general sensation from head, neck and face
  26. Which cranial nerve is the trigeminal nerve?
    CN V
  27. What do 1st order neurons of trigeminal nerve form?
    parts of nerve (V1, V2, V3)
  28. Where are the cell bodies of trigeminal nerve?
    semilunar ganglion
  29. Where are cell bodies of proprioceptors?
    in mesencephalic nucleus of midbrain and pons
  30. Where is the mesencephalic nucleus located?
    midbrain
  31. What do 1st order neurons of the trigeminal nerve synapse with?
    one of three nuclei depending on modality
  32. Where is the spinal nucleus of V?
    tegmentum of medulla
  33. The 1st order neuron of spinal nucleus of V (pain, temp, touch) synapses with what?
    2nd order
  34. Does the 2nd order neuron of spinal nucleus of V decussate?
    yes, to contralateral side in medulla
  35. What does the 2nd order neuron of the spinal nucleus of V become after it decussates in the medulla?
    trigeminal lemniscus
  36. Where does the 2nd order neuron of the spinal nucleus of V ascend?
    to thalamus
  37. The 3rd order neurons of the spinal nucleus of V project via:
    internal capsule to post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  38. Where is the Main (chief) sensory nucleus of V?
    tegmentum of pons
  39. The 1st order neuron of the main sensory nucleus of V synapses w/ what?
    2nd order
  40. What are the 1st order neurons of main sensory nucleus of V responsible for?
    • two-point discrimination
    • vibratory sense
    • fine touch
  41. Do the 2nd order neurons of main sensory nucleus of V decussate?
    yes
  42. Where do the 2nd order neurons of main sensory nucleus of V decussate?
    pons
  43. What do 2nd order neurons of main sensory nucleus of V become after they decussate?
    trigeminal lemniscus
  44. The 3rd order neurons of main sensory nucleus of V project via:
    internal capsule to post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  45. Where is the mesencephalic nucleus located?
    midbrain
  46. What are the 1st order neurons of mesencephalic nucleus responsible for?
    proprioception
  47. The 1st order neurons of the mesencephalic nucleus synapse with:
    2nd order
  48. Do the 2nd order neurons of mesencephalic nucleus decussate?
    yes
  49. Where do the 2nd order neurons of mesencephalic nucleus decussate?
    midbrain
  50. What do the 2nd order neurons of mesencephalic nucleus become after they decussate?
    part of trigeminal lemniscus
  51. The 3rd order neurons of mesencephalic nucleus project via:
    internal capsule to post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  52. What does the facial nerve innervate?
    anterior 2/3 of tongue for taste (special sense)
  53. What does the facial nerve respond to?
    chemical input
  54. Which cranial nerve is the facial nerve?
    CN VII
  55. How many neurons long is the facial nerve pathway?
    3
  56. Where do the 1st order neurons of the facial nerve originate?
    w/ anterior 2/3 of the tongue
  57. Where are the cell bodies of 1st order neurons of facial nerve?
    geniculate ganglia
  58. Where do 1st order neurons of facial nerve synapse with 2nd order?
    • in solitary nucleus
    • or
    • spinal nucleus of V
  59. Where is the solitary nucleus located?
    tegmentum of medulla
  60. What other nerves share the solitary nucleus with the facial nerve?
    CN IX and X
  61. Where is the spinal nucleus of V located?
    tegmentum of medulla
  62. What is the 2nd order neuron of the facial nerve in the facial nerve responsible for?
    innervation of skin of a small portion of external ear
  63. Does the 2nd order neuron of the facial nerve decussate?
    yes
  64. Where does the 2nd order neuron of the facial nerve decussate?
    in medulla to contralateral side
  65. Where does the 2nd order neuron of the facial nerve ascend?
    to thalamus
  66. What does the 2nd order neuron of the facial nerve become?
    trigeminal lemniscus
  67. Which nerve does the facial nerve share with the trigeminal lemniscus?
    trigeminal lemniscus
  68. Where is the 3rd order neuron of the facial nerve picked up?
    in the thalamus
  69. What does the 3rd order neuron of the facial nerve project through?
    internal capsule to parietal lobe
  70. What is the vestibulocochlear nerve responsible for?
    equilibrium and hearing
  71. Which cranial nerve is the vestibulocochlear nerve?
    CN VIII
  72. Which nerves make up the vestibulocochlear nerve?
    vestibular and cochlear
  73. Where are the 1st order receptors of the vestibular nerve located?
    utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals
  74. Where are the cell bodies of 1st order neurons of vestibular nerve?
    vestibular ganglia
  75. Where do the 1st order neurons of the vestibular nerve synapse with the 2nd order?
    vestibular nuclei
  76. How many vestibular nuclei are there?
    2 sets of 4
  77. Where are the vestibular nuclei located?
    tegmentum of pons
  78. Where do the 2nd order neurons of the vestibular nerve project to?
    • cerebellar cortex via thalamus
    • contralateral cerebral cortex via thalamus
    • spinal cord
    • motor nuclei of CN III, IV, VI
    • reticular formation
    • contralateral vestibular nuclei
  79. What is the cochlear nerve responsible for?
    transmitting sound waves
  80. Where are the receptors of 1st order neurons of cochlear nerve located?
    organ of corti and cochlea of inner ear
  81. Where are the cell bodies of 1st order neurons of cochlear nerve?
    spiral ganglia
  82. Where do the 1st order neurons of the cochlear nerve synapse with 2nd order?
    in dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei
  83. Where are the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei located?
    tegmentum of pons
  84. Where does the 1st order neuron of the cochlear nerve decussate?
    pons (at trapezoid body)
  85. What does the 2nd order neuron of the cochlear nerve ascend as?
    lateral lemniscus
  86. Where does the lateral lemniscus project to?
    inferior colliculus of tectum of midbrain
  87. Where do 3rd order neurons of the cochlear nerve project?
    medial geniculate body of the thalamus
  88. Where do 4th order neurons of cochlear nerve project to?
    auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) in temporal lobe via internal capsule
  89. Where does double decussation of the cochlear nerve occur?
    trapezoid body
  90. What does double decussation of the the cochlear nerve in the trapezoid body do?
    decreases amount of auditory loss if cochlear nerve is damaged
  91. Which cranial nerve is the glossopharyngeal nerve?
    CN IX
  92. How many neurons long is the glossopharyngeal nerve pathway?
    3
  93. What are the two sensory functions of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
    • sensory/tast
    • sensory/general sensations
  94. What does the sensory/taste function of the glossopharyngeal nerve do?
    innervates posterior 1/3 of the tongue for taste
  95. Where are the 1st order taste receptors of the glossopharyngeal nerve located?
    posterior 1/3 of tongue
  96. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order taste receptors of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
    inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia
  97. Where do the 1st order taste receptors of the glossopharyngeal nerve synapse w/ 2nd order?
    solitary nucleus
  98. Where is the solitary nucleus?
    located in tegmentum of medulla
  99. Which nerves share the solitary nucleus?
    CN VII, IX, and X
  100. Where does the 2nd order taste neurons of the gllossopharyngeal nerve decussate?
    pons/medulla
  101. What do the 2nd order taste neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve become?
    part of trigeminal lemniscus
  102. Where does the trigeminal lemniscus ascend to?
    thalamus
  103. Where do 3rd order taste neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve project?
    post-central gyrus of the parietal lobe via internal capsule
  104. What does the sensory/general sensations part of the glossopharyngeal nerve do?
    • innervates pharynx, soft palate, and posterior 1/3 of the tongue --for general sensation
    • gag reflex
  105. Where are the 1st order general sensation receptors of the glossopharyngeal nerve located?
    • pharynx
    • soft palate
    • posterior 1/3 of tongue
  106. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order general sensation neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve located?
    inferior or superior glossopharyngeal ganglia
  107. Where do the 1st order general sensation neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve synapse w/ the 2nd order?
    spinal nucleus of V
  108. Where is the spinal nucleus of V?
    medulla and pons
  109. Where do the 2nd order general sensation neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve decussate?
    to contralateral side and becomes part of trigeminal lemniscus
  110. Where do the 3rd order general sensation neurons of the glossopharyngeal nerve project to?
    post-central gyrus of parietal lobe via internal capsule
  111. Which cranial nerve is the vagus nerve?
    CN X
  112. What are the two sensory functions of the vagus nerve?
    • sensory/taste
    • general sensations
  113. What does the sensory/taste part of the vagus nerve do?
    innervate epiglottis (soft palate) for taste
  114. Where are the receptors of the 1st order taste neurons of the vagus nerve?
    epiglottic region
  115. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order taste neurons of the vagus nerve?
    inferior vagal ganglia
  116. Where do the 1st order taste neurons of the vagus nerve synapse with the 2nd order?
    solitary nucleus in tegmentum of medulla
  117. Where do the 2nd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve decussate?
    medulla
  118. What do the 2nd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve become after they decussate in the medulla?
    part of trigeminal lemniscus
  119. Where do the 2nd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve ascend?
    tegmentum of medulla, pons, and midbrain on way to thalamus
  120. Where do the 2nd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve synapse with 3rd order?
    thalamus
  121. What structure do the 3rd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve pass through before terminating?
    internal capsule
  122. Where do the 3rd order taste neurons of the vagus nerve terminate?
    post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  123. What does the general sensations part of the vagus nerve do?
    innervates external ear, pharynx, and thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic visceral structures
  124. Where do the 1st order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of vagus nerve begin?
    in visceral structures
  125. The 1st order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons follow the vagus nerve back to what?
    brain stem
  126. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order throacic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of the vagus nerve?
    superior and inferior vagal ganglia in the neck
  127. Where do the 1st order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of the vagus nerve synapse with the 2nd order?
    solitary nucleus in medulla
  128. What is the solitary nucleus responsible for?
    taste and all visceral sensory info from vagus nerve
  129. What do the 2nd order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of the vagus nerve become?
    part of trigeminal lemniscus
  130. Where do the 2nd order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of the vagus nerve synapse with 3rd order?
    in thalamus
  131. Where do the 3rd order thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic viscera neurons of the vagus nerve terminate?
    post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  132. Where are the 1st order external ear neurons of the vagus nerve from?
    small peripheral nn from external ear
  133. Where are the cell bodies of the 1st order external ear neurons of the vagus nerve?
    superior and inferior vagal ganglia
  134. Where do 1st order external ear neurons of vagus nerve synapse with 2nd order?
    spinal nucleus of medulla
  135. What do 2nd order external ear neurons of the vagus nerve associate with?
    trigeminal lemniscus
  136. Where do 2nd order external ear neurons of the vagus nerve synapse with 3rd order?
    thalamus
  137. Where do the 3rd order external ear neurons of the vagus nerve terminate?
    post-central gyrus of parietal lobe
  138. If the tract (pathway) is cut, which types of neurons are damaged and where are they located in the SC?
  139. If the tract (pathway) is cut, what modalities would be lost?
  140. If the tract (pathway) is cut, where would the loss of modalities occur?
  141. If the tract (pathway) is cut, where does decussation occur?
  142. If the tract (pathway) is cut, where do the 1st order sensory neurons originate?
  143. If the tract (pathway) is cut, where do the 3rd order sensory neurons originate?
  144. If the tract (pathway) is cut, where are the 2nd order sensory neurons located?
  145. If the tract (pathway) is cut, which neurons pass through the internal capsule?
  146. Where are the nuclei gracilis and cuneatus located?
  147. Where is the lateral lemniscus, of what is it made, and of what is it a continuation?
  148. Where is the medial lemniscus, of what is it made, and of what is it a continuation?
  149. What is the tegmentum of the brain stem?
  150. What constitutes the brain stem?
  151. What modalities would be lost if the medial lemniscus is cut?
  152. What part of the body would be affected if the medial lemniscus is cut?
  153. What modalities would be lost if the lateral lemniscus is cut?
  154. What part of the body would be affected if the lateral lemniscus is cut?

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