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symptoms develop rapidly, runs its course quickly (cold,flu)
usually mild symptoms that develop slowly, continual or recurrent, last long time (tuberculosis,leprosy, hepatitis C)
duration and severity are between acute and chronic (subacute bacterial endocarditis)
pathogen becomes inactive for long period of time (Herpes, HIV)
infectious disease comes from another infected host (flu, herpes, TB)
not spread from one host to another, comes from environment or normal microbiota (tooth decay, acne, tetanus)
What is epidemiology?
Epidemiology:the study of where and when diseases occur, and how they are transmitted within populations.
Incidence of AIDS in 2006 was 36,828 (number of new cases of AIDS)
Prevalence of AIDS in 2006 was 436,690 (total number of cases
disease occurs continually, at a stable incidence within a given population or geographic area (Valley Fever is endemic to our southwest area, Lyme disease is endemic to northeast and north-central US)
only a few scattered cases occur in an area or population - not outbreaks
disease occurs at a greater frequency than usual for an area or population (Plague, cholera, swine flu, avian flu, malaria)
epidemic occurs simultaneously on more than one continent (H1N1 flu = swine flu)
What are nosocomial infections?
infections acquired while patients or health care workers are in a health care facility, such as hospitals, dental offices, nursing homes waiting rooms.
What percent of patients acquire nosocomial infections?
10% american patients each year.
How many deaths per year do they cause? Nosocomial infections
Exogenous? Nosocomial infection
pathogens acquired from health care environment
Endogenous? Nosocomial infection
opportunistic infections by normal microbiota, occur while hospitalized or in health care facility
Iatrogenic? Nosocomial infection
“doctor induced” – catheters, invasive diagnostic procedures, surgery.
Superinfections? Nosocomial infections
from use of antimicrobial drugs – drug resistant microbes proliferate. (ex. C. difficile)
What three factors may interact to cause nosocomial infections?
- 1) Exposure to numerous pathogens in health care setting, including resistant strains
- 2) Weakened immune system of patients
- 3) Transmission of pathogens among patients and health care workers
*List at least five means of aggressive control of nosocomial infections.
- 3)Medical asepsis –including good housekeeping, handwashing, bathing, sanitary handling of food, proper hygiene, measures to avoid spreading pathogens among patients
- 4)surgical asepsis and sterile procedures-including thorough cleansing of surgical field, use of sterile instruments, use of sterile gloves, gowns, caps, and masks
- 5)Isolation of particularly contagious or susceptible patients
- 6)Establish nosocomial infection control committee – charged with surveillance of nosocomial diseases and review of control measures.