Ch12 study guide BIO205

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Ch12 study guide BIO205
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Ch12 study guide BIO205
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  1. 4 ways that reproduction of eukaryotes is more complicated than reproduction of prokaryotes
    • 1. Most of DNA is packaged with histone proteins as chromosomes in the form of chromatin fibers located within nuclei.
    • 2. Eukaryotes have a variety of methods of asexual reproduction, including binary fission, budding , fragmentation, spore formation
    • 3. many eukaryotes reproduce sexually- involves the formation of sexual cells called gametes
    • 4. additionally algae, fungi, and some protozoa reproduce both sexually and asexually 
  2. diploid?
    2 sets of chromosomes (4 haploid cells)
  3. haploid?
    • 1 set of chromosomes
    • •Mostfungi, many algae, and some protozoa are haploid; the rest are diploid
  4. mitosis?
    nuclear division results into two nuclei
  5. Meiosis?
    nuclear division of diploid eukaryotic cells resulting in four haploid nuclei
  6. cytokinesis?
    cytoplasmic division
  7. coenocytes?
    multinucleate cells resulting from repeated mitosis
  8. Schizogony
    special type of asexual reproduction in which the protozoan Plasmodium undergoes multiple mitoses to form multinucleate schizont
  9. Distribution of Protozoa - where are they found?
    • moist environments
    • Ponds,lakes, streams, oceans – some are plankton 
    • -basis of aquatic food chain
    • Also found in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter
  10. Morphology of Protozoa -know macronucleus
    • Some ciliates have 2 nuclei 
    • •may contain as many as 50 copies of genome
  11. Morphology of Protozoa -know trophozoite
    all free-living aquatic and pathogenic protozoa exist a s a Motile feeding stage is a trophozoite
  12. Morphology of Protozoa -know cyst
    hardy resting stage of some protozoa is a cyst
  13. Nutrition of Protozoa -chemoheterotrophic
    –phagocytize bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or tissues of host
  14. Nutrition of Protozoa- photoautotrophic
    • •Dinoflagellates and euglenids
    • algal plants
  15. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon
    Parabasala
    • -Parabasala- Lack mitochondria!!
    • –Trichonympha-Helps digest wood in guts of termites
    • Trichomonas
    • - sexually transmitted
    • •Vaginal infections
    • •Can cause sterility
  16. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon:
    Diplomonadida
    • Diplomonadida Lack mitochondria, Golgi bodies and peroxisomes
    • Have 2 equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella
    • •Giardia – a diarrhea-causing pathogen of humans found in steams, etc.
    • •Make cysts which humans                              
    • and pets ingest from streams
  17. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon:
    Euglenozoa
    • Euglenids
    • •Characteristics of both plants and animals
    • •Photoautotrophic, chlorophyll, no starch
    • •Lack cell walls, have flagella
    • Trypanosoma and Leishmania
    • •Bothcause potentially fatal diseases of humans carried by flies
  18. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon:
    Alveolates (know 3 taxons)
    • Alveolates –contain alveoli, 3 subgroups
    • Balantidium (the only ciliate pathogenic to humans
    • Apicomplexans – all pathogens
    • Plasmodium (causes malaria)
    • Pfiesteria- neurotoxin in fish, poisons by      handling infected fish or breathing air                                 with microbes
  19. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon:
    Rhizaria
    • unicellular Amoebae that use threadlike pseudopodia
    • •Foraminifera – porous shell of calcium carbonate Form limestone hundreds of meters thick
    • •Radiolarians – shell of silica
  20. Classification of Protozoa - know distinguishing characteristics of each taxon:
    Amoebozoa 
    • Amoebozoa–Lobe-shaped pseudopodia, no shell
    • Maycause diseases of swimmers
    • Naegleria and acanthamoeba –infects brains, eyes 
    • Slime Molds –lack celle walls, phagocytic
  21. The Significance of Fungi -describe benefits and risks
    • decompose dead organisms and recycle their nutrients
    • humans use for foods
    • produce antibiotics
    • research in study
    • not beneficial mycoses fungal disease
  22. thalli of yeast?
    small, blobullar, single cells
  23. hyphae?
    eiher septate or aseptate
  24. thalli molds?
    large and composed of long branched tubular filaments called hyphae
  25. dimorphic?
    fungi that produce two type of thalli
  26. Morphology of Fungi -know thallus
    vegetative body of a fungus
  27. Nutrition of Fungi - know ways of getting nutrients
    • •Secretecatabolic enzymes to break down large, organic molecules
    • •Mostare saprobes - absorb nutrients from dead organisms
  28. Are fungi aerobic, anaerobic, or both?
    •most are aerobic, yeasts are facultative anaerobes; some anaerobic fungi are found in digestive tract of cattle and deer
  29. Reproduction of Fungi -sexual or asexual?
    •All fungi reproduce asexually; most fungi also reproduce sexually
  30. How do yeast reproduce?
    • –Yeasts typically bud – Candida albicans invades human tissue by means of pseudohyphae
    • – long chains of budded cells – causes thrush and vaginal infections
  31. Describe 3 types of asexual spores.
    • –Sporangiospores •Form inside a sac – sporangium
    • –Chlamydospores •Form with thickened wall                                     inside hyphae
    • –Conidiospores •Produced a tips of hyphae,                                           but not within a sac
  32. Classification of Fungi -What are the 3 major groups of fungi based on sexual spores?
    • 1.Zygomycota (black bread mold, Microsporidia)
    • 2. Ascomycota formation og haplouid (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Saccharomyces, truffles)
    • 3. Basidiomycota (mushrooms, Cryptococcus neoformans
  33. Lichens - what is the partnership?
    •Partnership between fungi and photosynthetic microbes
  34. Distribution of Algae -where are they found?
    •Most are aquatic, but also live in soil, ice, in lichens
  35. Morphology of Algae -unicellular, colonial, multicellular
    •Can be unicellular, colonial or multicellular (seaweeds)
  36. Classification of Algae - examples of general categories
    red, green, brown, golden, yellow-green, and diatoms
    • red- kingdom rhodophyta cell walls of agar
    • green- chlorophyta plants
    • brown- phaeophyta stramenopila
    • yellow- green, golden, diatoms: chrysophyta diverse with respect to cell walls composition and pigments
  37. Water Molds?
    • •Not fungi – related to algae
    • •Decompose dead animals
    • •cell wall of cellulose
  38. Parasitic Helminths
    • –Parasiticworms
    • Microbiologists
    • usually identify the microscopic eggs or cysts
    • –Arthropod vectors •Mechanical
    • vectors –Just carry the pathogen from place to place
    • •Biological vectors Serve as hosts for the pathogen
  39. Parasitic Helminths 
    Arachnids
    • •4 pairs of legs
    • –Ticks and mites (chiggers)
    • –Ticks are the more important arachnid carriers - carry bacterial, viral and protozoan
    • diseases
    • •Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, encephalitis
  40. Parasitic Helminths 
    Insects
    • •3pairs of legs
    • –Fleas– carry the plague on rodents
    • –Lice– involved in typhus epidemics
    • –Flies– tsetse flies carry African sleeping sickness
    • –Mosquitoes – most important arthropod vectors of disease
    • •Malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, viral encephalitis 
    • Kissingbugs – Chagas’ diseas caused by a protozoan

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